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The technological properties of particleboards manufactured with nano additive melamine-formaldehyde adhesive

Year 2023, Volume: 24 Issue: 1, 139 - 147, 15.05.2023
https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1249563

Abstract

In the present study, the effect of nano additives in different ratios added to melamine formaldehyde adhesives on the properties of particleboards was investigated. In this respect, two different nanoclays [organo-modified nanoclays (OMC) and unmodified nanoclays (NC)] and graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) were added to the adhesive at the rate of 1%, 2% and 4%. Along with the physical (thickness swelling and water absorption), mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and internal bond strength), accelerated weathering and fire resistance tests (Limiting oxygen index-LOI) of the board were carried out. According to the results, while there was no significant change in the water absorption values with the use of nano additives, a decrease occurred in the thickness swelling values with the use of GNP. The mechanical properties increased with the use of nano additives. The highest values were obtained from the board groups using 1% GNP. The loss of mechanical resistance values after the accelerated weathering test was reduced with the use of 1% nanoclay and up to 2% GNP. According to LOI test results, the use of 1% and 2% nano additives increased the fire resistance of the boards., The agglomerations were determined in places with the increase in the nano additive ratio in the SEM images.

References

  • Abd-Elnaiem AM, Salman OS, Hakamy A, Hussein SI (2022) Mechanical characteristics and thermal stability of hybrid epoxy and acrylic polymer coating/nanoclay of various thicknesses. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 32:2094–2102.
  • ASTM D1037 (2006) Standard test method for evaluating properties of wood-base fiber and particle panel materials. ASTM, United States.
  • ASTM D2863-06a (2006) Standard test method for measuring the minimum oxygen concentration to support candle-like combustion of plastics (oxygen index). ASTM, United States.
  • ASTM G-154 (2000) Standard Practice for Operating Fluorescent Light Apparatus for UV Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials, ASTM, United States.
  • Barbu MC, Reh R, Irle M (2014) Wood-based composites. Research Developments in Wood Engineering and Technology, IGI Global, pp 1–45.
  • Bhat G, Hegde RR, Kamath MG, Deshpande B (2008) Nanoclay reinforced fibers and nonwovens. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, 3(3): 22-34.
  • Bourbigot S, Fontaine G (2010) Flame retardancy of polylactide: an overview. Polymer Chemistry, 1(9): 1413-1422. Choi W, Lahiri I, Seelaboyina R, Kang YS (2010) Synthesis of graphene and its applications: a review. Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, 35: 52–71.
  • Claypole A, Claypole J, Claypole T, Gethin D, Kilduff L (2021) The effect of plasma functionalization on the print performance and time stability of graphite nanoplatelet electrically conducting inks. Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, 18(1): 193-203.
  • Deka BK, Maji TK (2011) Effect of TiO2 and nanoclay on the properties of wood polymer nanocomposite. Composites Part A: Applied Science Manufacturing, 42(12): 2117-2125.
  • Dittrich B, Wartig KA, Hofmann D, Mülhaupt R, Schartel B (2013) Carbon black, multiwall carbon nanotubes, expanded graphite and functionalized graphene flame retarded polypropylene nanocomposites. Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 24(10): 916-926.
  • Duan Z, Thomas NL, Huang W (2013) Water vapour permeability of poly (lactic acid) nanocomposites. Journal of membrane Science, 445: 112-118.
  • EN 310 (1999) Wood-based panels, determination of modulus of elasticity in bending and bending strength. EN, Brussels, Belgium.
  • EN 312 (2012) Particleboards-specification. EN, Brussels, Belgium.
  • EN 317 (1999) Particleboard and fiberboards, determination of swelling in the thickness after immersion. EN, Brussels, Belgium.
  • EN 319 (1999) Particleboards and fiberboards, determination of tensile strength perpendicular to the plane of the board. EN, Brussels, Belgium.
  • FAOSTAT (2020) Global Forest Products Facts and Figures. FAO Forestry Department, https://www.fao.org/forestry/statistics/80570/en/ (26 January 2023).
  • Geimer RL, Heebink BG, Hefty FV (1973) Weathering characteristics of particleboard. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.
  • Gul W, Alrobei H, Shah SRA, Khan A, Hussain A, Asiri AM, Kim J (2020) Effect of embedment of MWCNTs for enhancement of physical and mechanical performance of medium density fiberboard. Nanomaterials, 11(1): 29.
  • Hamdani S, Longuet C, Perrin D, Lopez-Cuesta JM, Ganachaud F (2009) Flame retardancy of silicone-based materials. Polymer Degradation Stability, 94(4): 465-495.
  • Honaker K, Vautard F, Drzal LT (2017) Investigating the mechanical and barrier properties to oxygen and fuel of high density polyethylene–graphene nanoplatelet composites. Materials Science and Engineering, B (216): 23-30.
  • Ibrahim F, Mohan D, Sajab MS, Bakarudin SB, Kaco H (2019) Evaluation of the compatibility of organosolv lignin-graphene nanoplatelets with photo-curable polyurethane in stereolithography 3D printing. Polymers, 11(10): 1544.
  • Infurna G, Teixeira PF, Dintcheva NT, Hilliou L, La Mantia FP, Covas JA (2020) Taking advantage of the functional synergism between carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets to obtain polypropylene-based nanocomposites with enhanced oxidative resistance. European Polymer Journal, 133: 109796.
  • Kajita H, Mukudai J, Yano H (1991) Durability evaluation of particleboards by accelerated aging tests. Wood Science and Technology, 25:239–249.
  • Kasım H (2018) The development of conductive elastomer nanocomposite materials using carbon-based nano-filling materials: Progress on electrical, physical and mechanical characterization and sensing performance under static and cyclic dynamic loads. Ph.D. Thesis, Bursa Uludag University, Institute of Science, Bursa.
  • Kiu SSK, Yusup S, Chok VS, Taufiq A, Kamil RNM, Syahrullail S, Chin BLF (2017) Comparison on tribological properties of vegetable oil upon addition of carbon based nanoparticles. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 206(1): 012043.
  • Kobes M, Helsloot I, De Vries B, Post JG (2010) Building safety and human behaviour in fire: A literature review. Fire Safety Journal, 45: 1–11.
  • Kranauskaitė I, Macutkevič J, Borisova A, Martone A, Zarrelli M, Selskis A, Aniskevich A, Banys J (2017) Enhancing electrical conductivity of multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites by graphene nanoplatelets. Lithuanian Journal of Physics, 57(4): 232-242.
  • Liu ZQ, Li Z, Yang YX, Zhang YL, Wen X, Li N, Fu C, Jian RK, Li LJ, Wang DY (2018) A geometry effect of carbon nanomaterials on flame retardancy and mechanical properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate/magnesium hydroxide composites. Polymers, 10(9): 1028.
  • Majeed K, Hassan A, Bakar AA, Jawaid M (2016) Effect of montmorillonite (MMT) content on the mechanical, oxygen barrier, and thermal properties of rice husk/MMT hybrid filler-filled low-density polyethylene nanocomposite blown films. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 29(7): 1003-1019.
  • Majid MA, Ridzuan MJM, Lim K (2020) Effect of nanoclay filler on mechanical and morphological properties of napier/epoxy composites. In Interfaces in Particle and Fibre Reinforced Composites, Woodhead Publishing, pp 137-162.
  • Mazaheri M, Moghimi H, Taheri RA (2022) Urea impregnated multiwalled carbon nanotubes; a formaldehyde scavenger for urea formaldehyde adhesives and medium density fiberboards bonded with them. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 139(1): 51445.
  • Mistretta MC, Botta L, Vinci AD, Ceraulo M, La Mantia FP (2019) Photo-oxidation of polypropylene/graphene nanoplatelets composites. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 160: 35-43.
  • Muller NE (1992) An early example of a plywood support for painting. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, 31: 257–260.
  • Muñoz F, Moya R (2018) Effect of nanoclay-treated UF resin on the physical and mechanical properties of plywood manufactured with wood from tropical fast growth plantations. Maderas Ciencia y tecnología, 20(1): 11-24.
  • Özgenç Ö, Nemli G (2020) Increasing the outdoor durability of urea formaldehyde particle board with new generation water-borne acrylic coatings. Sigma Journal of Engineering and Natural Sciences, 11(2): 159–166. Peker H, Atılgan A (2015) Natural energy resources wood: combustion property and protection methods. Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Science and Engineering, 15: 022201.
  • Pizzi A (2003) Natural phenolic adhesives. I: Tannin, In: Pizzi A, Mittal KL (ed) Handbook of Adhesive Technology, 2 edn, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 573-589.
  • Powell CE, Beall GW (2007) Physical properties of polymers handbook, Physical properties of polymer/clay nanocomposites. In: James ME (ed) Springer, Germany, pp 561-575.
  • Ran S, Chen C, Guo Z, Fang Z (2014) Char barrier effect of graphene nanoplatelets on the flame retardancy and thermal stability of high‐density polyethylene flame‐retarded by brominated polystyrene. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 131(15): 40520.
  • Reis MFC, Lopes CBS, Soares JD, Costa LJ, Guirardi BD, Faria BFH, Carneiro ACO (2017) Effect of the addition of nanoclay (na+ montmorillonite) on the urea formaldehyde adhesive in wood bonded joints of eucalyptus sp. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 11(12): 51-56.
  • Rowell RM (2012) Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites. 2 edn, CRC press, Florida, USA. Saleem H, Edathil A, Ncube T, Pokhrel J, Khoori S, Abraham A, Mittal V (2016) Mechanical and thermal properties of thermoset–graphene nanocomposites. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 301(3): 231-259.
  • Sengupta R, Bhattacharya M, Bandyopadhyay S, Bhowmick AK (2011) A review on the mechanical and electrical properties of graphite and modified graphite reinforced polymer composites. Progress in Polymer Science, 36: 638–670.
  • Sepet H (2014) Investigation of the production and mechanical properties of nano-particle reinforced high density polyethylene nanocomposites. Master Thesis, Selcuk University, Institute of Science and Technology, Konya.
  • Shi J, Li J, Zhou W, Zhang D (2007) Improvement of wood properties by urea-formaldehyde resin and nano-SiO2. Frontiers of Forestry in China, 2(1): 104-109.
  • Vartiainen J, Tuominen M, Nättinen K (2010) Bio‐hybrid nanocomposite coatings from sonicated chitosan and nanoclay.. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 116(6): 3638-3647.
  • Wang F, Drzal LT, Qin Y, Huang Z (2015) Mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of graphene nanoplatelet/epoxy composites. Journal of Materials Science, 50(3): 1082-1093.
  • Wang ZY, Han EH, Ke W (2007) Fire‐resistant effect of nanoclay on intumescent nanocomposite coatings. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 103(3): 1681-1689.
  • Wu Q, Miao WS, Gao HJ, Hui D (2020) Mechanical properties of nanomaterials: a review. Nanotechnology Reviews, 9(1): 259-273.
  • Yasmin A, Daniel IM (2004) Mechanical and thermal properties of graphite platelet/epoxy composites. Polymer, 45(24): 8211-8219.

Nano katkılı melamin formaldehit tutkalı ile üretilen yonga-levhaların teknolojik özellikleri

Year 2023, Volume: 24 Issue: 1, 139 - 147, 15.05.2023
https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1249563

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, melamin formaldehit tutkalına eklenen farklı oranlarda nano katkı maddelerinin yongalevhaların özellikleri üzerine etkisi araştırılmıştır. Bu amaçla tutkal içerisine %1, %2 ve %4 oranlarında iki farklı nanokil [organo modifiye nanokil (OMC) ve modifiye edilmemiş nanokil (NC)] ve grafen nanotoz (GNP) eklenmiştir. Levhaların fiziksel (kalınlık artımı ve su alma) ve mekanik (eğilme direnci, eğilmede elastikiyet modülü ve yüzeye dik çekme direnci) özelliklerinin yanı sıra, yapay yaşlandırma testi sonra mekanik direnç değerlerindeki değişim ve yangına dayanım (LOI) değerleri belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre nano katkı kullanımı ile su alma değerlerinde önemli bir değişim olmazken, GNP kullanımı ile kalınlık artış değerlerinde azalma meydana gelmiştir. Nano katkıların kullanımı ile mekanik özellikler ise artmıştır. En yüksek mekanik direnç değerleri %1 GNP kullanılan levha gruplarından elde edilmiştir. Hızlandırılmış yaşlandırma testi sonrası mekanik direnç değerlerindeki kayıp %1 nanokil ve %2’ye kadar GNP kullanımı ile azaltılmıştır. LOI testi sonuçlarına göre, %1 ve %2 nano katkı kullanımı levhaların yangına dayanıklılığını arttırmıştır. SEM görüntülerinde nano katkı oranının artmasıyla yer yer topaklanmalar oluştuğu belirlenmiştir.

References

  • Abd-Elnaiem AM, Salman OS, Hakamy A, Hussein SI (2022) Mechanical characteristics and thermal stability of hybrid epoxy and acrylic polymer coating/nanoclay of various thicknesses. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 32:2094–2102.
  • ASTM D1037 (2006) Standard test method for evaluating properties of wood-base fiber and particle panel materials. ASTM, United States.
  • ASTM D2863-06a (2006) Standard test method for measuring the minimum oxygen concentration to support candle-like combustion of plastics (oxygen index). ASTM, United States.
  • ASTM G-154 (2000) Standard Practice for Operating Fluorescent Light Apparatus for UV Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials, ASTM, United States.
  • Barbu MC, Reh R, Irle M (2014) Wood-based composites. Research Developments in Wood Engineering and Technology, IGI Global, pp 1–45.
  • Bhat G, Hegde RR, Kamath MG, Deshpande B (2008) Nanoclay reinforced fibers and nonwovens. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, 3(3): 22-34.
  • Bourbigot S, Fontaine G (2010) Flame retardancy of polylactide: an overview. Polymer Chemistry, 1(9): 1413-1422. Choi W, Lahiri I, Seelaboyina R, Kang YS (2010) Synthesis of graphene and its applications: a review. Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, 35: 52–71.
  • Claypole A, Claypole J, Claypole T, Gethin D, Kilduff L (2021) The effect of plasma functionalization on the print performance and time stability of graphite nanoplatelet electrically conducting inks. Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, 18(1): 193-203.
  • Deka BK, Maji TK (2011) Effect of TiO2 and nanoclay on the properties of wood polymer nanocomposite. Composites Part A: Applied Science Manufacturing, 42(12): 2117-2125.
  • Dittrich B, Wartig KA, Hofmann D, Mülhaupt R, Schartel B (2013) Carbon black, multiwall carbon nanotubes, expanded graphite and functionalized graphene flame retarded polypropylene nanocomposites. Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 24(10): 916-926.
  • Duan Z, Thomas NL, Huang W (2013) Water vapour permeability of poly (lactic acid) nanocomposites. Journal of membrane Science, 445: 112-118.
  • EN 310 (1999) Wood-based panels, determination of modulus of elasticity in bending and bending strength. EN, Brussels, Belgium.
  • EN 312 (2012) Particleboards-specification. EN, Brussels, Belgium.
  • EN 317 (1999) Particleboard and fiberboards, determination of swelling in the thickness after immersion. EN, Brussels, Belgium.
  • EN 319 (1999) Particleboards and fiberboards, determination of tensile strength perpendicular to the plane of the board. EN, Brussels, Belgium.
  • FAOSTAT (2020) Global Forest Products Facts and Figures. FAO Forestry Department, https://www.fao.org/forestry/statistics/80570/en/ (26 January 2023).
  • Geimer RL, Heebink BG, Hefty FV (1973) Weathering characteristics of particleboard. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.
  • Gul W, Alrobei H, Shah SRA, Khan A, Hussain A, Asiri AM, Kim J (2020) Effect of embedment of MWCNTs for enhancement of physical and mechanical performance of medium density fiberboard. Nanomaterials, 11(1): 29.
  • Hamdani S, Longuet C, Perrin D, Lopez-Cuesta JM, Ganachaud F (2009) Flame retardancy of silicone-based materials. Polymer Degradation Stability, 94(4): 465-495.
  • Honaker K, Vautard F, Drzal LT (2017) Investigating the mechanical and barrier properties to oxygen and fuel of high density polyethylene–graphene nanoplatelet composites. Materials Science and Engineering, B (216): 23-30.
  • Ibrahim F, Mohan D, Sajab MS, Bakarudin SB, Kaco H (2019) Evaluation of the compatibility of organosolv lignin-graphene nanoplatelets with photo-curable polyurethane in stereolithography 3D printing. Polymers, 11(10): 1544.
  • Infurna G, Teixeira PF, Dintcheva NT, Hilliou L, La Mantia FP, Covas JA (2020) Taking advantage of the functional synergism between carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets to obtain polypropylene-based nanocomposites with enhanced oxidative resistance. European Polymer Journal, 133: 109796.
  • Kajita H, Mukudai J, Yano H (1991) Durability evaluation of particleboards by accelerated aging tests. Wood Science and Technology, 25:239–249.
  • Kasım H (2018) The development of conductive elastomer nanocomposite materials using carbon-based nano-filling materials: Progress on electrical, physical and mechanical characterization and sensing performance under static and cyclic dynamic loads. Ph.D. Thesis, Bursa Uludag University, Institute of Science, Bursa.
  • Kiu SSK, Yusup S, Chok VS, Taufiq A, Kamil RNM, Syahrullail S, Chin BLF (2017) Comparison on tribological properties of vegetable oil upon addition of carbon based nanoparticles. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 206(1): 012043.
  • Kobes M, Helsloot I, De Vries B, Post JG (2010) Building safety and human behaviour in fire: A literature review. Fire Safety Journal, 45: 1–11.
  • Kranauskaitė I, Macutkevič J, Borisova A, Martone A, Zarrelli M, Selskis A, Aniskevich A, Banys J (2017) Enhancing electrical conductivity of multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites by graphene nanoplatelets. Lithuanian Journal of Physics, 57(4): 232-242.
  • Liu ZQ, Li Z, Yang YX, Zhang YL, Wen X, Li N, Fu C, Jian RK, Li LJ, Wang DY (2018) A geometry effect of carbon nanomaterials on flame retardancy and mechanical properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate/magnesium hydroxide composites. Polymers, 10(9): 1028.
  • Majeed K, Hassan A, Bakar AA, Jawaid M (2016) Effect of montmorillonite (MMT) content on the mechanical, oxygen barrier, and thermal properties of rice husk/MMT hybrid filler-filled low-density polyethylene nanocomposite blown films. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 29(7): 1003-1019.
  • Majid MA, Ridzuan MJM, Lim K (2020) Effect of nanoclay filler on mechanical and morphological properties of napier/epoxy composites. In Interfaces in Particle and Fibre Reinforced Composites, Woodhead Publishing, pp 137-162.
  • Mazaheri M, Moghimi H, Taheri RA (2022) Urea impregnated multiwalled carbon nanotubes; a formaldehyde scavenger for urea formaldehyde adhesives and medium density fiberboards bonded with them. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 139(1): 51445.
  • Mistretta MC, Botta L, Vinci AD, Ceraulo M, La Mantia FP (2019) Photo-oxidation of polypropylene/graphene nanoplatelets composites. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 160: 35-43.
  • Muller NE (1992) An early example of a plywood support for painting. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, 31: 257–260.
  • Muñoz F, Moya R (2018) Effect of nanoclay-treated UF resin on the physical and mechanical properties of plywood manufactured with wood from tropical fast growth plantations. Maderas Ciencia y tecnología, 20(1): 11-24.
  • Özgenç Ö, Nemli G (2020) Increasing the outdoor durability of urea formaldehyde particle board with new generation water-borne acrylic coatings. Sigma Journal of Engineering and Natural Sciences, 11(2): 159–166. Peker H, Atılgan A (2015) Natural energy resources wood: combustion property and protection methods. Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Science and Engineering, 15: 022201.
  • Pizzi A (2003) Natural phenolic adhesives. I: Tannin, In: Pizzi A, Mittal KL (ed) Handbook of Adhesive Technology, 2 edn, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 573-589.
  • Powell CE, Beall GW (2007) Physical properties of polymers handbook, Physical properties of polymer/clay nanocomposites. In: James ME (ed) Springer, Germany, pp 561-575.
  • Ran S, Chen C, Guo Z, Fang Z (2014) Char barrier effect of graphene nanoplatelets on the flame retardancy and thermal stability of high‐density polyethylene flame‐retarded by brominated polystyrene. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 131(15): 40520.
  • Reis MFC, Lopes CBS, Soares JD, Costa LJ, Guirardi BD, Faria BFH, Carneiro ACO (2017) Effect of the addition of nanoclay (na+ montmorillonite) on the urea formaldehyde adhesive in wood bonded joints of eucalyptus sp. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 11(12): 51-56.
  • Rowell RM (2012) Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites. 2 edn, CRC press, Florida, USA. Saleem H, Edathil A, Ncube T, Pokhrel J, Khoori S, Abraham A, Mittal V (2016) Mechanical and thermal properties of thermoset–graphene nanocomposites. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 301(3): 231-259.
  • Sengupta R, Bhattacharya M, Bandyopadhyay S, Bhowmick AK (2011) A review on the mechanical and electrical properties of graphite and modified graphite reinforced polymer composites. Progress in Polymer Science, 36: 638–670.
  • Sepet H (2014) Investigation of the production and mechanical properties of nano-particle reinforced high density polyethylene nanocomposites. Master Thesis, Selcuk University, Institute of Science and Technology, Konya.
  • Shi J, Li J, Zhou W, Zhang D (2007) Improvement of wood properties by urea-formaldehyde resin and nano-SiO2. Frontiers of Forestry in China, 2(1): 104-109.
  • Vartiainen J, Tuominen M, Nättinen K (2010) Bio‐hybrid nanocomposite coatings from sonicated chitosan and nanoclay.. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 116(6): 3638-3647.
  • Wang F, Drzal LT, Qin Y, Huang Z (2015) Mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of graphene nanoplatelet/epoxy composites. Journal of Materials Science, 50(3): 1082-1093.
  • Wang ZY, Han EH, Ke W (2007) Fire‐resistant effect of nanoclay on intumescent nanocomposite coatings. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 103(3): 1681-1689.
  • Wu Q, Miao WS, Gao HJ, Hui D (2020) Mechanical properties of nanomaterials: a review. Nanotechnology Reviews, 9(1): 259-273.
  • Yasmin A, Daniel IM (2004) Mechanical and thermal properties of graphite platelet/epoxy composites. Polymer, 45(24): 8211-8219.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Forest Industry Engineering
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Uğur ARAS 0000-0002-1572-0727

Hülya KALAYCIOĞLU 0000-0002-1807-4353

Publication Date May 15, 2023
Acceptance Date March 24, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 24 Issue: 1

Cite

APA ARAS, U., & KALAYCIOĞLU, H. (2023). The technological properties of particleboards manufactured with nano additive melamine-formaldehyde adhesive. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 24(1), 139-147. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1249563
AMA ARAS U, KALAYCIOĞLU H. The technological properties of particleboards manufactured with nano additive melamine-formaldehyde adhesive. ACUJFF. May 2023;24(1):139-147. doi:10.17474/artvinofd.1249563
Chicago ARAS, Uğur, and Hülya KALAYCIOĞLU. “The Technological Properties of Particleboards Manufactured With Nano Additive Melamine-Formaldehyde Adhesive”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24, no. 1 (May 2023): 139-47. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1249563.
EndNote ARAS U, KALAYCIOĞLU H (May 1, 2023) The technological properties of particleboards manufactured with nano additive melamine-formaldehyde adhesive. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24 1 139–147.
IEEE U. ARAS and H. KALAYCIOĞLU, “The technological properties of particleboards manufactured with nano additive melamine-formaldehyde adhesive”, ACUJFF, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 139–147, 2023, doi: 10.17474/artvinofd.1249563.
ISNAD ARAS, Uğur - KALAYCIOĞLU, Hülya. “The Technological Properties of Particleboards Manufactured With Nano Additive Melamine-Formaldehyde Adhesive”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24/1 (May 2023), 139-147. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1249563.
JAMA ARAS U, KALAYCIOĞLU H. The technological properties of particleboards manufactured with nano additive melamine-formaldehyde adhesive. ACUJFF. 2023;24:139–147.
MLA ARAS, Uğur and Hülya KALAYCIOĞLU. “The Technological Properties of Particleboards Manufactured With Nano Additive Melamine-Formaldehyde Adhesive”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 24, no. 1, 2023, pp. 139-47, doi:10.17474/artvinofd.1249563.
Vancouver ARAS U, KALAYCIOĞLU H. The technological properties of particleboards manufactured with nano additive melamine-formaldehyde adhesive. ACUJFF. 2023;24(1):139-47.
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