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CO2 emission from soil irrigated with recycled wastewater at different levels and the relationships of emission with soil properties

Year 2023, Volume: 24 Issue: 1, 155 - 166, 15.05.2023
https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1256742

Abstract

The use of recycled wastewater in agricultural irrigation contributes to ecosystem by reducing the discharge of wastewater to the environment, as well as increasing soil quality with fertilizing effect. However, since the high nutrient of wastewater can make the soil a source of CO2 emission, it is necessary to know the relationships between CO2 emission and soil properties to the management of emissions. This study aimed to determine the relationships between CO2 emission and soil properties by examining the changes in the properties of soil irrigated with recycled wastewater and freshwater at different levels. The results showed that the recycled wastewater caused 58.1% more CO2 emissions than freshwater in full irrigation treatments, while the emissions decreased in the range of 8.8% to 44.5% with increased deficit irrigation. In addition, the significant relationships of CO2 emission with EC, pH, CaCO3, organic matter, total N, P2O5, K2O, cation exchange capacity, porosity, aggregate stability properties of the soil and H2O emission from the soil, soil moisture and temperature at different depths were determined, demonstrated the effectiveness of these parameters in the management of CO2 emissions in soil irrigated with recycled wastewater. Considering the obtained findings, it was determined that deficit irrigation is very effective in reducing CO2 emission and considering the effectiveness of soil temperature and soil properties on the emissions, CO2 emission can be reduced by soil temperature and soil properties management, and more comprehensive studies on this subject could suggest.

References

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  • Akbolat D (2009) The effect of scrapper use on soil CO2 emission during the seedbed preparation. J of SDU Faculty of Agri, 4(1):23-30.
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  • Ball BC, Crichton I, Horgan GW (2008) Dynamics of upward and downward N2O and CO2 fluxes in ploughed or no-tilled soils in relation to water-filled pore space, compaction and crop presence. Soil and Tillage Research, 101(1-2):20-30.
  • Bedbabis S, Trigui D, Ahmed CB, Clodoveo ML, Camposeo S, Vivaldi GA, Rouina BB (2015) Long-terms effects of irrigation with treated municipal wastewater on soil, yield, olive oil quality. Agriculture Water Management, 160:14-21.
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  • Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS (1982) Nitrogen total 1. In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 595-624
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  • Haddaway NR, Hedlund K, Jackson LE, Katterer T, Lugato E, Thomsen IK, Jorgensen HB, Isberg PE (2017) How does tillage intensity affect soil organic carbon? Environmental Evidence, 5(1):1-8.
  • Hou H, Chen H, Cai H, Yang F, Li D, Wang F (2016) CO2 and N2O emissions from lou soils of greenhouse tomato fields under aerated irrigation. Atmospheric Env, 132:69-76.
  • Hou H, Han Z, Yang Y, Abudu S, Cai H, Li Z (2020) Soil CO2 emissions from summer maize fields under deficit irrigation. Env Science and Poll Research, 27:4442-4449.
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  • Kanber R, Unlu M (2010) Water and soil salinity in agriculture. Cukurova Universtiy Faculty of Agriculture Publication, Adana.
  • Kemper WD, Rosenau RC (1986) Aggregate stability and size distribution. In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 425-442.
  • Kim DG, Vargas R, Bond-Lamberty B, Turetsky M (2012) Effects of soil rewetting and thawing on soil gas fluxes: a review of current literature and suggestions future research. Biogeosciences, 9(7):2459-2483.
  • Knudsen D, Peterson GA, Pratt PF (1982) Lithium, sodium, and potassium. In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 225-246.
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  • Liu Z, Tang J, Ren X, Schaeffer SM (2021) Effects of phosphorus modified nZVI-biochar composite on emission of greenhouse gases and changes of microbial community in soil. Environmental Pollution, 274:116483.
  • Lovelock CE, Atwood T, Baldock J, Duarte CM, Hickey S, Lavery PS, Masque P, Macreadie IP, Ricart MA, Serrano O, Steven A (2017) Assessing the risk of carbon dioxide emissions from blue carbon ecosystems. Frontiers in Eco and the Env, 15(5):257-265.
  • Lu X, Mao Q, Mo J, Gilliam FS, Zhou G, Luo Y, Zhang W, Huang J (2015) Divergent responses of soil buffering capacity to long-term N deposition in three typical tropical forests with different land-use history. Env Science Technology, 49(7):4072-4080.
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  • Masciandaro G, Macci C, Peruzzi E, Ceccanti B, Doni S (2013) Organic matter–microorganism–plant in soil bioremediation: a synergic approach. Reviews in Env Sci and Bio Techn, 12(4):399-419.
  • Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Sci Society America, USA, pp 961-1010.
  • Nelson RE (1982) Carbonate and Gypsum In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 191-197.
  • Olsen SR, Sommers LE, Page AL (1982) Phosphorus In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 403-430.
  • Pietri JA, Brookes PC (2008) Relationships between soil pH and microbial properties in a UK arable soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40(7):1856-1861.
  • Sainju UM, Singh BP, Whitehead WF (2002) Long-term effects of tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization on organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in sandy loam soils in Georgia, USA. Soil Tillage Research, 63:167-179.
  • Sakin E, Yanardag IH (2019) Effect of application of sheep manure and its biochar on carbon emissions in salt affected calcareous soil Sanliurfa Region SE Turkey. Fresenius Env Bull, 28(4):2553-2560.
  • Setia R, Marschner P, Baldock J, Chittleborough D (2010) Is CO2 evolution in saline soils affected by osmotic effect and calcium carbonate? Bio and Fert of Soil, 46(8):781-792.
  • Setia R, Marschner P, Baldock J, Chittleborough D, Verma V (2011) Relationships between carbon dioxide emission and soil properties salt-affected landscapes. Soil Bio Biochem, 43(3):667-674.
  • Sheng Y, Zhan Y, Zhu L (2016) Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil. Science of the Total Environment, 572:129-137.
  • Sheng Y, Zhu L (2018) Biochar alters microbial community and carbon sequestration potential across different soil pH. Science of the Total Environment, 622:1391-1399.
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  • Sinaie S, Sadeghi-Namaghi H, Fekrat L (2019) Effects of elevated CO2 and water stress on population growth of the two-spotted spider mite, on sweet pepper under environmentally controlled conditions. J of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 22(1):96-102.
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  • Singh A (2021) A review of wastewater irrigation: Environmental implications. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 168:105454.
  • Singh K (2016) Microbial and enzyme activities of saline and sodic soils. Land Degradation Development, 27(3):706-718.
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Farklı seviyelerde geri dönüştürülmüş atık suyla sulanan topraktan CO2 emisyonu ve emisyonun toprak özellikleriyle ilişkileri

Year 2023, Volume: 24 Issue: 1, 155 - 166, 15.05.2023
https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1256742

Abstract

Geri dönüştürülmüş atık suların tarımsal sulamada kullanımı gübreleme etkisiyle toprak kalitesini artırmanın yanı sıra atık suların çevreye deşarjını da azalttarak ekosisteme katkı sağlamaktadır. Ancak atık suyun yüksek besin içeriği toprağı CO2 emisyonu sağlayan kaynak haline getirebileceği için emisyonların yönetimi için CO2 emisyonu ile toprak özellikleri arasındaki ilişkilerin iyi bir şekilde bilinmesi gereklidir. Bu çalışma farklı seviyelerde geri dönüştürülmüş atık suyla ve temiz suyla sulanan toprağın özelliklerindeki değişimler inceleyerek CO2 emisyonu ile toprak özellikleri arasındaki ilişkileri belirlemeyi amaçlamıştır. Sonuçlar, tam sulama uygulamalarında geri dönüştürülmüş atık suyun temiz sudan %58.1 daha fazla CO2 emisyonuna neden olduğunu ancak artan kısıntılı sulama ile emisyonların %8.8 ile %44.5 aralığında azaldığını göstermiştir. Ayrıca CO2 emisyonunun toprağın EC, pH, CaCO3, organik madde, toplam N, P2O5, K2O, katyon değişim kapasitesi, porozite, agregat stabilitesi özellikleri ile topraktan H2O emisyonu ve farklı derinliklerde toprak nemi ve sıcaklığıyla önemli ilişkilerinin belirlenmiş olması geri dönüştürülmüş atık suyla sulanan toprakta CO2 emisyonu yönetiminde bu parametrelerin etkinliğini ortaya koymuştur. Elde edilen bulgular dikkate alındığında, CO2 emisyonu azaltımında kısıntılı sulamanın oldukça etkili olduğu ve toprak sıcaklığı ile toprak özelliklerinin emisyon üzerindeki etkisi dikkate alındığında CO2 emisyonunun toprak sıcaklığı ve toprak özellikleri yönetimiyle azaltılabileceği ve bu konuda daha kapsamlı çalışmaların yapılması önerilebilir olarak bulunmuştur.

References

  • Abegunrin TP, Awe GO, Idowu DO, Onigbogi OO, Onofua OE (2013) Effect of kitchen wastewater irrigation on soil properties and growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). J of Soil Sci and Env Man, 4(7):139-145.
  • Akbolat D (2009) The effect of scrapper use on soil CO2 emission during the seedbed preparation. J of SDU Faculty of Agri, 4(1):23-30.
  • Allison SD, Weintraub MN, Gartner TB, Waldrop MP (2011) Evolutionary-economic principles as regulators of soil enzyme production and ecosystem function. In Shukla, G, Varma A (eds). Soil Enzymology, Springer, Germany, pp 229-257.
  • Anonymous 2007 Microwave assisted acid digestion of sediments, sludges, soils, and oils. https:/www.epa.gov/sites/production/files2015-12/documents/3051a.pdf , (05.05.2018)
  • APHA-AWWA-WPCF (1989) Standart methods for examination of water and wastewater. https://www.techstreet.com/standards/standard-methods-for-the-examination-of-water-and-wastewater-23rdedition?gclid= EAIaIQobChMI8cO8p8K24AIVFojVCh3qvwxIEAAYASAAEgLc_vD_BwE&sid=goog&product_id=1974889 , (17.09.2018)
  • Aziz T, Ullah S, Sattar A, Nasim M, Farooq M, Khan MM (2010) Nutrient availability and maize (Zea mays) growth in soil amended with organic manures. Int J of Agri and Bio, 12(4):621-624.
  • Ball BC, Crichton I, Horgan GW (2008) Dynamics of upward and downward N2O and CO2 fluxes in ploughed or no-tilled soils in relation to water-filled pore space, compaction and crop presence. Soil and Tillage Research, 101(1-2):20-30.
  • Bedbabis S, Trigui D, Ahmed CB, Clodoveo ML, Camposeo S, Vivaldi GA, Rouina BB (2015) Long-terms effects of irrigation with treated municipal wastewater on soil, yield, olive oil quality. Agriculture Water Management, 160:14-21.
  • Blake GR, Hartge KH (1986a) Bulk density. In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 377-382.
  • Blake GR, Hartge KH (1986b) Particle density. In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 377-382.
  • Bozkurt YE, Akpolat D (2016) The effect of forward speed of rotary tiller on soil carbon dioxide emission. J of SDU Faculty of Agri, 11(2):61-69.
  • Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS (1982) Nitrogen total 1. In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 595-624
  • Chowdhury S, Al-Zahrani M (2014) Fuzzy synthetic evaluation of treated wastewater reuse for agriculture. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 16(3):521-538.
  • Cosentino D, Chenu C, Le Bissonnais Y (2006) Aggregate stability and microbial community dynamics under drying–wetting cycles in a silt loam soil. Soil Bio and Biochem, 38(8):2053-2062.
  • Danielson RE, Sutherland PL (1986) Porosity. In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 443-461.
  • Dubinsky EA, Silver WL, Firestone MK (2010) Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry. Ecology, 91(9):2604-2612.
  • Fér M, Kodešová R, Klement A, Nikodem A (2022) The impact of treated wastewater and biosolids from the municipal wastewater treatment plant on water and carbon dioxide effluxes from soils. J of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 70(3):276-283.
  • Figueiredo CC, Coser TR, Moreira TN, Leão TP, Vale AT, Paz-Ferreiro J (2019) Carbon mineralization in a soil amended with sewage sludge-derived biochar. Applied Sciences, 9(21):4481.
  • Gee GW, Bauder JW (1986) Particle size analysis. In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 255-293.
  • Gungor Z, Akbolat D (2021) Effect of rotary tiller rear shield position on soil compaction, soil disturbance and soil carbon dioxide emissions. J of Isparta University of Applied Sci Faculty of Agri, 16(2):214-219.
  • Guo L, Wu G, Li Y, Li C, Liu W, Meng J, Liu H, Yu X, Jiang G (2016) Effects of cattle manure compost combined with chemical fertilizer on topsoil organic matter, bulk density and earthworm activity in a wheat–maize rotation system in Eastern China. Soil and Tillage Research, 156:140-147.
  • HACH (2005) DR 5000 Spectrometer Procedures Manuel. http://tr.hach.com/quick.Searchdownloadsearch.jsa?keywords=kullan%C4%B1 , (17. 09.2018).
  • HACH (2010) Hach Bodtrak II. http://tr.hach.com/bod-trak-ii-aksesuarlar-ile-birlikte-respirometrikboi-aparat/productdownloadsd , (17.09.2018).
  • Haddaway NR, Hedlund K, Jackson LE, Katterer T, Lugato E, Thomsen IK, Jorgensen HB, Isberg PE (2017) How does tillage intensity affect soil organic carbon? Environmental Evidence, 5(1):1-8.
  • Hou H, Chen H, Cai H, Yang F, Li D, Wang F (2016) CO2 and N2O emissions from lou soils of greenhouse tomato fields under aerated irrigation. Atmospheric Env, 132:69-76.
  • Hou H, Han Z, Yang Y, Abudu S, Cai H, Li Z (2020) Soil CO2 emissions from summer maize fields under deficit irrigation. Env Science and Poll Research, 27:4442-4449.
  • Kacar B (2009) Soil analysis. Nobel Publishing House, Ankara.
  • Kanber R, Unlu M (2010) Water and soil salinity in agriculture. Cukurova Universtiy Faculty of Agriculture Publication, Adana.
  • Kemper WD, Rosenau RC (1986) Aggregate stability and size distribution. In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 425-442.
  • Kim DG, Vargas R, Bond-Lamberty B, Turetsky M (2012) Effects of soil rewetting and thawing on soil gas fluxes: a review of current literature and suggestions future research. Biogeosciences, 9(7):2459-2483.
  • Knudsen D, Peterson GA, Pratt PF (1982) Lithium, sodium, and potassium. In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 225-246.
  • Lehmann J, Cowie A, Masiello CA, Kammann C, Woolf D, Amonette JE, Cayuela LM, Camps-Arbestain M, Whitman T (2021) Biochar in climate change mitigation. Nature Geoscience, 14(12):883-892.
  • Li P, Wang X, Zhang T, Zhou D, He Y (2008) Effects of several amendments on rice growth and uptake copper and cadmium from contaminated soil. J of Env Sci, 20(4):449-455.
  • Liu Z, Tang J, Ren X, Schaeffer SM (2021) Effects of phosphorus modified nZVI-biochar composite on emission of greenhouse gases and changes of microbial community in soil. Environmental Pollution, 274:116483.
  • Lovelock CE, Atwood T, Baldock J, Duarte CM, Hickey S, Lavery PS, Masque P, Macreadie IP, Ricart MA, Serrano O, Steven A (2017) Assessing the risk of carbon dioxide emissions from blue carbon ecosystems. Frontiers in Eco and the Env, 15(5):257-265.
  • Lu X, Mao Q, Mo J, Gilliam FS, Zhou G, Luo Y, Zhang W, Huang J (2015) Divergent responses of soil buffering capacity to long-term N deposition in three typical tropical forests with different land-use history. Env Science Technology, 49(7):4072-4080.
  • Marin Spiotta E, Gruley KE, Crawford J, Atkinson EE, Miesel JR, Greene S, Cardona-Correa C, Spencer RGM (2014) Paradigm shifts in soil organic matter research affect interpretations of aquatic carbon cycling: transcending disciplinary and ecosystem boundaries. Biogeochemistry, 117(2):279-297.
  • Masciandaro G, Macci C, Peruzzi E, Ceccanti B, Doni S (2013) Organic matter–microorganism–plant in soil bioremediation: a synergic approach. Reviews in Env Sci and Bio Techn, 12(4):399-419.
  • Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Sci Society America, USA, pp 961-1010.
  • Nelson RE (1982) Carbonate and Gypsum In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 191-197.
  • Olsen SR, Sommers LE, Page AL (1982) Phosphorus In Klute A (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical methods, Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society America, USA, pp 403-430.
  • Pietri JA, Brookes PC (2008) Relationships between soil pH and microbial properties in a UK arable soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40(7):1856-1861.
  • Sainju UM, Singh BP, Whitehead WF (2002) Long-term effects of tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization on organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in sandy loam soils in Georgia, USA. Soil Tillage Research, 63:167-179.
  • Sakin E, Yanardag IH (2019) Effect of application of sheep manure and its biochar on carbon emissions in salt affected calcareous soil Sanliurfa Region SE Turkey. Fresenius Env Bull, 28(4):2553-2560.
  • Setia R, Marschner P, Baldock J, Chittleborough D (2010) Is CO2 evolution in saline soils affected by osmotic effect and calcium carbonate? Bio and Fert of Soil, 46(8):781-792.
  • Setia R, Marschner P, Baldock J, Chittleborough D, Verma V (2011) Relationships between carbon dioxide emission and soil properties salt-affected landscapes. Soil Bio Biochem, 43(3):667-674.
  • Sheng Y, Zhan Y, Zhu L (2016) Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil. Science of the Total Environment, 572:129-137.
  • Sheng Y, Zhu L (2018) Biochar alters microbial community and carbon sequestration potential across different soil pH. Science of the Total Environment, 622:1391-1399.
  • Silva LV, de Lima VL, Pearson HW, Silva TT, Maciel CL, Sofiatti V (2016) Chemical properties of a Haplustalf soil under irrigation with treated wastewater and nitrogen fertilization. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, 20(4):308-315.
  • Sinaie S, Sadeghi-Namaghi H, Fekrat L (2019) Effects of elevated CO2 and water stress on population growth of the two-spotted spider mite, on sweet pepper under environmentally controlled conditions. J of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 22(1):96-102.
  • Singh A (2019) Remote sensing and GIS applications for municipal waste management. Journal of Environmental Management, 243:22-29.
  • Singh A (2021) A review of wastewater irrigation: Environmental implications. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 168:105454.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Agricultural, Veterinary and Food Sciences
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Caner YERLİ 0000-0002-8601-8791

Publication Date May 15, 2023
Acceptance Date April 6, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 24 Issue: 1

Cite

APA YERLİ, C. (2023). CO2 emission from soil irrigated with recycled wastewater at different levels and the relationships of emission with soil properties. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 24(1), 155-166. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1256742
AMA YERLİ C. CO2 emission from soil irrigated with recycled wastewater at different levels and the relationships of emission with soil properties. ACUJFF. May 2023;24(1):155-166. doi:10.17474/artvinofd.1256742
Chicago YERLİ, Caner. “CO2 Emission from Soil Irrigated With Recycled Wastewater at Different Levels and the Relationships of Emission With Soil Properties”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24, no. 1 (May 2023): 155-66. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1256742.
EndNote YERLİ C (May 1, 2023) CO2 emission from soil irrigated with recycled wastewater at different levels and the relationships of emission with soil properties. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24 1 155–166.
IEEE C. YERLİ, “CO2 emission from soil irrigated with recycled wastewater at different levels and the relationships of emission with soil properties”, ACUJFF, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 155–166, 2023, doi: 10.17474/artvinofd.1256742.
ISNAD YERLİ, Caner. “CO2 Emission from Soil Irrigated With Recycled Wastewater at Different Levels and the Relationships of Emission With Soil Properties”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24/1 (May 2023), 155-166. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1256742.
JAMA YERLİ C. CO2 emission from soil irrigated with recycled wastewater at different levels and the relationships of emission with soil properties. ACUJFF. 2023;24:155–166.
MLA YERLİ, Caner. “CO2 Emission from Soil Irrigated With Recycled Wastewater at Different Levels and the Relationships of Emission With Soil Properties”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 24, no. 1, 2023, pp. 155-66, doi:10.17474/artvinofd.1256742.
Vancouver YERLİ C. CO2 emission from soil irrigated with recycled wastewater at different levels and the relationships of emission with soil properties. ACUJFF. 2023;24(1):155-66.
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