Research Article
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Kızılçam kabuk taneni ile modifiye edilmiş üre formaldehit tutkalının özellikleri

Year 2023, Volume: 24 Issue: 2, 50 - 57, 15.10.2023
https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1285070

Abstract

Bu çalışmada kızılçam kabuk taneni ile modifiye edilmiş üre formaldehit tutkalının performans özellikleri ortaya konulmuştur. Kızılçam kabuğundan ekstraksiyon ile tanen elde edilmiş ve bu tanen üre formaldehit tutkalına, tutkal katı maddesine oranla %5-50 arasında katılarak modifiye üre formaldehit tutkalı elde edilmiş, bu tutkalın performans özellikleri ortaya konmuştur. Modifiye tutkal örneklerinin viskozite, katı madde miktarı, jel süresi, pH ve tutkalda serbest formaldehit tayini yapılmıştır. Tüm tutkal örneklerinin ıslak ve kuru dayanım değerlerini ortaya koymak için kayın kaplama kullanılarak Lap Shear çekme dayanımı testleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Aynı zamanda modifiye tutkalların FTIR analizleri ve yapışma hattının mikroskobik görüntüleri alınarak analiz edilmiştir.
Modifiye edilmiş tutkal grupları arasında tanen kullanım oranı arttıkça tutkal viskozite ve jelleşme süresinin arttığı görülmüştür. Tanen oranı %15 olan U4 modifiye tutkal grubunda jelleşme süresi 340 sn. olarak kaydedilmiştir. Modifiye edilmiş tutkalın serbest formaldehit tayini sonuçları incelendiğinde tanen oranının artmasıyla tutkaldaki serbest formaldehit miktarında azalma meydana gelmiştir. En düşük serbest formaldehit değeri U5 örneğinde %0.32 olarak belirlenmiştir. Modifiye tutkal örneklerinde belirlenen 2972 ve 2901 cm-1 piklerinde keskinleşme ve belirginleşme, 1123 cm-1 bölgesindeki tepe noktası kayması ve pik genişlemesi ile örneklerdeki kimyasal modifikasyon ve yeni bağların oluşumu ortaya konulmuştur.

References

  • Balaban M (2003) Orman Ürünleri Kimyası. Basılmamış Ders Notları.
  • BS 5350-B2 (1976) Methods of Test for Adhesives: Determination of Solids Content. British Standards Institute, London.
  • Chupin L, Motillon C, Bouhtoury CE, Pizzi A, Charrier B (2013) Characterisation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) bark tannins extracted under different conditions by spectroscopic methods, FTIR and HPLC. Industrial Crops and Products, 49:897-903.
  • EN ISO 9397 (1997) Plastics—Phenolic Resins—Determination of Free-Formaldehyde Content—Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method; European Committee for Standardization (CEN): Brussels, Belgium.
  • Fengel D, Wegener G (1984) Wood Chemistry, Ultrastructure, Reactions, Walter de Gruyter. Berlin New York, 3-11-008481-3.
  • Fink JK (2005) Reactive polymers fundamentals and applications, New York. Plastics Design Library, 978-0815515159.
  • Gönültaş O, Balaban Uçar M (2012) Fıstıkçamı (Pinus pinea) kabuğunun tanen bileşimi, KSÜ Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi, Özel Sayı:80-84.
  • Gönültaş O, Uçar MB (2017) Doğu Ladini (Picea orientalis) ve Meşe (Quercus spp.) kabuklarının kimyasal bileşimi. Türkiye Ormancılık Dergisi, 18(4):321-327.
  • Gonultas O (2018) Properties of pine bark tannin-based adhesive produced with various hardeners. Bioresources, 13(4):9066-9078.
  • Kawalerczyk J, Dziurka D, Mirski R, Szentner K (2020) Properties of plywood produced with urea-formaldehyde adhesive modified with nanocellulose and microcellulose. Drvna industrija, 71(1): 61-67.
  • Khanbabaee K, Ree T (2001) Tannins: Classification and definition. Nat. Prod. Rep., 18:641–649.
  • Khristova P, Yossifov N, Gabir S, Glavchev I, Osman Z (1998) Particle boards from sunflower stalks and tannin-modified UF resin. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 32(3-4):327-337.
  • Kim S (2010) The reduction of formaldehyde and VOCs emission from wood-based flooring by green adhesive using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 182(1-3):919-922.
  • Kristak L, Antov P, Bekhta P, Lubis MAR, Iswanto AH, Reh R, Hejna A (2023) Recent progress in ultra-low formaldehyde emitting adhesive systems and formaldehyde scavengers in wood-based panels: A review. Wood Material Science & Engineering, 18(2):763-782.
  • Kumar RN, Pizzi A (2019) Environmental Aspects of Adhesives-Emission of Formaldehyde. Adhesives for Wood and Lignocellulosic Materials, Wiley-Scrivener Publishing: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 293-312.
  • Lebkowska M, Zaleska-Radziwill M, Tabarnacka A (2017) Adhesives based on formaldehyde–environmental problems. Journal of Biotechnology Computational Biology and Bionanotechnology, 98(1):53-65.
  • Pizzi A (1994) Advanced Wood Adhesives Technology. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 978-0824-7926-64.
  • Pizzi A, Stephanou A (1994) Fast vs. slow-reacting non-modified tannin extracts for exterior particleboard adhesives. Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, 52:218-222.
  • Pizzi A, Mittal KL (2003) Handbook of Adhesive Technology. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Marcel Dekker, New York, 0-8247-0986-1.
  • Pizzi A (2006) Recent developements in eco-efficient bio-based adhesives for wood bonding: opportunities and issues. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 8 (20):829-846.
  • Ricci A, Olejar KJ, Parpinello GP, Kilmartin PA, Versari A (2015) Aplication of fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the characterization of Tannins. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, 50: 407-442.
  • Roumeli E, Papadopoulou E, Pavlidou E, Vourlias G, Bikiaris D, Paraskevopoulos KM, Chrissafis K (2012) Synthesis, characterization and thermal analysis of urea–formaldehyde/nanoSiO2 resins. Thermochimica Acta, 527:33-39.
  • Santos J, Delgado N, Fuentes J, Fuentealba C, Vega-Lara J, García DE (2018) Exterior grade plywood adhesives based on pine bark polyphenols and hexamine. Industrial Crops and Products, 122:340-348.
  • Soto R, Freer J, Baeza J (2005) Evidence of chemical reactions between di-and poly-glycidyl ether resins and tannins isolated from Pinus radiata D. Don bark. Bioresource Technology, 96(1):95-101.
  • Soytürk EE (2019) Fıstıkçamı kabuk taneni ve valeks taneni ile hazırlanan biyotutkalların özelliklerinin belirlenmesi. Bursa Teknik Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Orman Endüstri Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Bursa.
  • Sjöström E (1981) Wood Chemistry Fundamentals and Applications. Academic Pres Inc, San Diego, pp. 223, California, USA.
  • Olejar KJ, Ricci A, Swift S, Zujovic Z, Gordon KC, Fedrizzi B, Kilmartin PA (2019) Characterization of an antioxidant and antimicrobial extract from cool climate, white grape marc. Antioxidants, 8(7):232.
  • Uçar MB, Uçar G, Pizzi A, Gönültaş O (2013) Characterization of Pinus brutia bark tannin by MALDI-TOF MS and 13CNMR. Industrial Crops and Products, (49):607-704.
  • Yazaki Y, Hillis WE (1977) Polyphenolic extractives of Pinus radiata bark. Holzforschung.
  • Zhou X, Du G (2019) Application of Tannin Resin Adhesives in the Wood Industry. Tannins- Structural Properties, Biological Properties and Current Knowledge, Edited by Dr. Alfredo Aires.

The properties of urea formaldehyde adhesive modified with Red Pine bark tannin

Year 2023, Volume: 24 Issue: 2, 50 - 57, 15.10.2023
https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1285070

Abstract

In this study, the performance properties of urea formaldehyde adhesive modified with red pine bark tannin were investigated. Tannin was obtained by extraction from red pine bark and it was added to the urea formaldehyde adhesive in proportions ranging from 5% to 50% relative to the adhesive's solid content to obtain modified urea formaldehyde adhesive, and the performance properties of this adhesive were revealed. The modified adhesive samples were analyzed for viscosity, solid content, gel time, pH, and free formaldehyde content. Lap Shear tensile strength tests were conducted on beech veneer to determine the wet and dry strength values of the adhesive samples. Additionally, FTIR analysis and microscopic imaging were performed on the modified adhesive samples.
As the tannin utilization rate increased, the viscosity and gelation time of the adhesive also increased. The U4 modified adhesive group, with a 15% tannin ratio, had a gelation time of 340 seconds. The amount of free formaldehyde in the adhesive decreased with increasing tannin ratio, with the U5 sample having the lowest value of 0.32% compared to 0.90% in the urea formaldehyde (U1). FTIR analysis revealed peak shifts and broadening in the 1123 cm-1 region, indicating chemical modification and the formation of new bonds in the modified adhesive samples. Additionally, sharpening and clarification were observed at 2972 and 2901 cm-1 peaks.

References

  • Balaban M (2003) Orman Ürünleri Kimyası. Basılmamış Ders Notları.
  • BS 5350-B2 (1976) Methods of Test for Adhesives: Determination of Solids Content. British Standards Institute, London.
  • Chupin L, Motillon C, Bouhtoury CE, Pizzi A, Charrier B (2013) Characterisation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) bark tannins extracted under different conditions by spectroscopic methods, FTIR and HPLC. Industrial Crops and Products, 49:897-903.
  • EN ISO 9397 (1997) Plastics—Phenolic Resins—Determination of Free-Formaldehyde Content—Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method; European Committee for Standardization (CEN): Brussels, Belgium.
  • Fengel D, Wegener G (1984) Wood Chemistry, Ultrastructure, Reactions, Walter de Gruyter. Berlin New York, 3-11-008481-3.
  • Fink JK (2005) Reactive polymers fundamentals and applications, New York. Plastics Design Library, 978-0815515159.
  • Gönültaş O, Balaban Uçar M (2012) Fıstıkçamı (Pinus pinea) kabuğunun tanen bileşimi, KSÜ Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi, Özel Sayı:80-84.
  • Gönültaş O, Uçar MB (2017) Doğu Ladini (Picea orientalis) ve Meşe (Quercus spp.) kabuklarının kimyasal bileşimi. Türkiye Ormancılık Dergisi, 18(4):321-327.
  • Gonultas O (2018) Properties of pine bark tannin-based adhesive produced with various hardeners. Bioresources, 13(4):9066-9078.
  • Kawalerczyk J, Dziurka D, Mirski R, Szentner K (2020) Properties of plywood produced with urea-formaldehyde adhesive modified with nanocellulose and microcellulose. Drvna industrija, 71(1): 61-67.
  • Khanbabaee K, Ree T (2001) Tannins: Classification and definition. Nat. Prod. Rep., 18:641–649.
  • Khristova P, Yossifov N, Gabir S, Glavchev I, Osman Z (1998) Particle boards from sunflower stalks and tannin-modified UF resin. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 32(3-4):327-337.
  • Kim S (2010) The reduction of formaldehyde and VOCs emission from wood-based flooring by green adhesive using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 182(1-3):919-922.
  • Kristak L, Antov P, Bekhta P, Lubis MAR, Iswanto AH, Reh R, Hejna A (2023) Recent progress in ultra-low formaldehyde emitting adhesive systems and formaldehyde scavengers in wood-based panels: A review. Wood Material Science & Engineering, 18(2):763-782.
  • Kumar RN, Pizzi A (2019) Environmental Aspects of Adhesives-Emission of Formaldehyde. Adhesives for Wood and Lignocellulosic Materials, Wiley-Scrivener Publishing: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 293-312.
  • Lebkowska M, Zaleska-Radziwill M, Tabarnacka A (2017) Adhesives based on formaldehyde–environmental problems. Journal of Biotechnology Computational Biology and Bionanotechnology, 98(1):53-65.
  • Pizzi A (1994) Advanced Wood Adhesives Technology. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 978-0824-7926-64.
  • Pizzi A, Stephanou A (1994) Fast vs. slow-reacting non-modified tannin extracts for exterior particleboard adhesives. Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, 52:218-222.
  • Pizzi A, Mittal KL (2003) Handbook of Adhesive Technology. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Marcel Dekker, New York, 0-8247-0986-1.
  • Pizzi A (2006) Recent developements in eco-efficient bio-based adhesives for wood bonding: opportunities and issues. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 8 (20):829-846.
  • Ricci A, Olejar KJ, Parpinello GP, Kilmartin PA, Versari A (2015) Aplication of fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the characterization of Tannins. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, 50: 407-442.
  • Roumeli E, Papadopoulou E, Pavlidou E, Vourlias G, Bikiaris D, Paraskevopoulos KM, Chrissafis K (2012) Synthesis, characterization and thermal analysis of urea–formaldehyde/nanoSiO2 resins. Thermochimica Acta, 527:33-39.
  • Santos J, Delgado N, Fuentes J, Fuentealba C, Vega-Lara J, García DE (2018) Exterior grade plywood adhesives based on pine bark polyphenols and hexamine. Industrial Crops and Products, 122:340-348.
  • Soto R, Freer J, Baeza J (2005) Evidence of chemical reactions between di-and poly-glycidyl ether resins and tannins isolated from Pinus radiata D. Don bark. Bioresource Technology, 96(1):95-101.
  • Soytürk EE (2019) Fıstıkçamı kabuk taneni ve valeks taneni ile hazırlanan biyotutkalların özelliklerinin belirlenmesi. Bursa Teknik Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Orman Endüstri Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Bursa.
  • Sjöström E (1981) Wood Chemistry Fundamentals and Applications. Academic Pres Inc, San Diego, pp. 223, California, USA.
  • Olejar KJ, Ricci A, Swift S, Zujovic Z, Gordon KC, Fedrizzi B, Kilmartin PA (2019) Characterization of an antioxidant and antimicrobial extract from cool climate, white grape marc. Antioxidants, 8(7):232.
  • Uçar MB, Uçar G, Pizzi A, Gönültaş O (2013) Characterization of Pinus brutia bark tannin by MALDI-TOF MS and 13CNMR. Industrial Crops and Products, (49):607-704.
  • Yazaki Y, Hillis WE (1977) Polyphenolic extractives of Pinus radiata bark. Holzforschung.
  • Zhou X, Du G (2019) Application of Tannin Resin Adhesives in the Wood Industry. Tannins- Structural Properties, Biological Properties and Current Knowledge, Edited by Dr. Alfredo Aires.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Forest Industry Engineering
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Kadir YEŞİLTEPE 0000-0001-9967-6972

Oktay GÖNÜLTAŞ 0000-0002-2132-4667

Publication Date October 15, 2023
Acceptance Date July 22, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 24 Issue: 2

Cite

APA YEŞİLTEPE, K., & GÖNÜLTAŞ, O. (2023). Kızılçam kabuk taneni ile modifiye edilmiş üre formaldehit tutkalının özellikleri. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 24(2), 50-57. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1285070
AMA YEŞİLTEPE K, GÖNÜLTAŞ O. Kızılçam kabuk taneni ile modifiye edilmiş üre formaldehit tutkalının özellikleri. ACUJFF. October 2023;24(2):50-57. doi:10.17474/artvinofd.1285070
Chicago YEŞİLTEPE, Kadir, and Oktay GÖNÜLTAŞ. “Kızılçam Kabuk Taneni Ile Modifiye Edilmiş üre Formaldehit tutkalının özellikleri”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24, no. 2 (October 2023): 50-57. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1285070.
EndNote YEŞİLTEPE K, GÖNÜLTAŞ O (October 1, 2023) Kızılçam kabuk taneni ile modifiye edilmiş üre formaldehit tutkalının özellikleri. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24 2 50–57.
IEEE K. YEŞİLTEPE and O. GÖNÜLTAŞ, “Kızılçam kabuk taneni ile modifiye edilmiş üre formaldehit tutkalının özellikleri”, ACUJFF, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 50–57, 2023, doi: 10.17474/artvinofd.1285070.
ISNAD YEŞİLTEPE, Kadir - GÖNÜLTAŞ, Oktay. “Kızılçam Kabuk Taneni Ile Modifiye Edilmiş üre Formaldehit tutkalının özellikleri”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24/2 (October 2023), 50-57. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1285070.
JAMA YEŞİLTEPE K, GÖNÜLTAŞ O. Kızılçam kabuk taneni ile modifiye edilmiş üre formaldehit tutkalının özellikleri. ACUJFF. 2023;24:50–57.
MLA YEŞİLTEPE, Kadir and Oktay GÖNÜLTAŞ. “Kızılçam Kabuk Taneni Ile Modifiye Edilmiş üre Formaldehit tutkalının özellikleri”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 24, no. 2, 2023, pp. 50-57, doi:10.17474/artvinofd.1285070.
Vancouver YEŞİLTEPE K, GÖNÜLTAŞ O. Kızılçam kabuk taneni ile modifiye edilmiş üre formaldehit tutkalının özellikleri. ACUJFF. 2023;24(2):50-7.
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