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Measurement and evaluation of urban growth and urban sprawl: Tekirdağ Example

Year 2023, Volume: 24 Issue: 2, 210 - 223, 15.10.2023
https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1367661

Abstract

With the increasing population, today's cities are undergoing rapid change and transformation. Increased human activities in cities result in numerous negative outcomes, such as the decline in biodiversity, increased environmental pollution, and the disruption of ecosystem cycles, ultimately leading to the degradation of nature. Especially, the uncontrolled growth and expansion of cities in response to increasing needs and demands can result in inappropriate land use, putting natural resources under pressure and leading to their loss. Indeed, especially in cities that are experiencing rapid population growth, this situation is more evident. In this context, urban sprawl, which indicates urban spread, has many negative effects if not managed correctly. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate urban growth and detect urban sprawl in three districts of Tekirdağ province, namely Süleymanpaşa, Çorlu, and Çerkezköy, which have been receiving rapid immigration and thus have seen a significant increase in their populations. In line with this, using the high-resolution data from the Urban Atlas, the land use situation for the years 2012 and 2018 has been presented. The results have shown an increase in artificial areas and a decrease in agricultural lands for all districts. For the detection of urban sprawl, the Normalized Urban Atlas Sprawl Indicator (NUASI) developed by Petrescu (2019) has been utilized. According to the NUASI findings, the urban sprawl trend in the Süleymanpaşa, Çorlu, and Çerkezköy have been determined as -1.90%, 0.70%, and 0.96%, respectively. This result indicates that Çerkezköy is the district with the highest urban sprawl development. Recommendations for spatial planning have been provided within the scope of the study.

References

  • Aksoy ME, Sönmez Ö (2021) Sanayi Alanlarının kentsel forma ve saçaklanmaya etkisi:Arnavutköy Örneği. Journal of Technology and Applied Sciences, 3(2):151-166.
  • Aksoy T, Dabanli A, Cetin M, Senyel Kurkcuoglu MA, Cengiz AE, Cabuk SN, Agacsapan B, Cabuk A (2022) Evaluation of comparing urban area land use change with Urban Atlas and CORINE data. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(19):28995-29015.
  • Anonymous (2023a) Süleymanpaşa, (https://tr.db-city.com/T%C3%BCrkiye--Tekirda%C4%9F--S%C3%BCleymanpa%C5%9Fa) . Access date: 30.04.2023.
  • Anonymous (2023b) İlçemiz. Çorlu Belediyesi. http://www.corlu.bel.tr/idet/72/259/ilcemiz. Access date: 28.04.2023.
  • Anonymous (2023c) İl Olmaya Aday İlçeler Hangileri? https://www.nufusu.com/blog/il-olmaya-aday-ilceler-hangileri-114. Access date: 30.04.2023.
  • Arribas-Bel D, Nijkamp P, Scholten H (2011) Multidimensional urban sprawl in Europe: A self-organizing map approach. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 35(4):263-275.
  • Aydoğdu M, Bakırcı M (2021) Süleymanpaşa ilçesinde (Tekirdağ) nüfusun zamansal gelişimi ve mahallelere göre yoğunluk analizi. Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi, 26(46):273-294.
  • Bhatta B, Saraswati S, Bandyopadhyay D (2010) Urban sprawl measurement from remote sensing data. Applied Geography, 30(4):731-740.
  • CLMS (Copernicus Land Monitoring Service) (2022) Urban Atlas. https://land.copernicus.eu/local/urban-atlas. Access date: 15.04.2023.
  • Çavuş CZ, Başaran Uysal A (2018) Interaction with the urban development, sprawl and the rural areas in Canakkale. Planlama Dergisi, 28(Supp:1):105-117.
  • Çerkezköy Chamber of Commerce and Industry (2023) Çerkezköy. https://www.cerkezkoytso.org.tr/uploads/docs/cerkezkoy(1).pdf. Access date: 17.04.2023.
  • Çorlu Chamber of Commerce and Industry (2023) Coğrafi konum (https://www.corlutso.org.tr/content-222-cografi_konum.html#:~:text=%C3%87orlu%2C%20T%C3%BCrkiye'nin%20kuzeybat%C4%B1%20(,00%20saniye%20kuzey%20enlemi%20aras%C4%B1ndad%C4%B1r. Access date: 17.04.2023.
  • Çorlu Municipality (2020) Çorlu Tanıtım ve Turizm Rehberi. Çorlu Belediyesi Yayınları. https://www.corlu.bel.tr/upload/tr/dosya/yayinlar/turkce_18112020145132.pdf. Access date: 17.04.2023.
  • Dobesova Z (2020) Experiment in finding look-alike european cities using urban atlas data. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 9(6): Article 6.
  • Duru MA, Hoş F, Ersoy Tonyaloğlu E (2022) Kent peyzajının yeşil altyapı yaklaşımı ile değerlendirilmesi: Çankaya / Ankara örneği. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 23(1):135-143.
  • Fang S, Gertner GZ, Sun Z, Anderson AA (2005) The impact of interactions in spatial simulation of the dynamics of urban sprawl. Landscape and Urban Planning, 73(4):294-306.
  • Gülhan G (2017) Nazım İmar Planı Geri besleme süreçlerinde erişilebilirlik ölçütlerinin kullanılması: Tekirdağ/Süleymanpaşa Örneği. Artium, 5(1):42-60.
  • Hamidi S, Ewing R (2014) A longitudinal study of changes in urban sprawl between 2000 and 2010 in the United States. Landscape and Urban Planning, 128:72-82.
  • Hasse JE, Lathrop RG (2003) Land resource impact indicators of urban sprawl. Applied Geography, 23(2):159-175.
  • Hennig EI, Schwick C, Soukup T, Orlitová E, Kienast F, Jaeger JAG (2015) Multi-scale analysis of urban sprawl in Europe: Towards a European de-sprawling strategy. Land Use Policy, 49:483-498.
  • Jaeger JAG, Bertiller R, Schwick C, Kienast F (2010a) Suitability criteria for measures of urban sprawl. Ecological Indicators, 10(2):397-406.
  • Jaeger JAG, Bertiller R, Schwick C, Cavens D, Kienast F (2010b) Urban permeation of landscapes and sprawl per capita: New measures of urban sprawl. Ecological Indicators, 10(2):427-441.
  • Jaeger JAG, Schwick C (2014) Improving the measurement of urban sprawl: Weighted Urban Proliferation (WUP) and its application to Switzerland. Ecological Indicators, 38:294-308.
  • Jat MK, Garg PK, Khare D (2008) Monitoring and modelling of urban sprawl using remote sensing and GIS techniques. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 10(1):26-43.
  • Kanbak A (2013) İstanbul ve Kentsel Saçaklanma. MSGSÜ Sosyal Bilimler, 8: 11-30.
  • Lata KM, Rao CS, Prasad VK, Badarianth KVS, Rahgavasamy V (2001) Measuring urban sprawl: A case study of Hyderabad. GIS development, 5(12):26-29.
  • Micek O, Feranec J, Stych P (2020) Land use/land cover data of the urban atlas and the cadastre of real estate: an evaluation study in the Prague Metropolitan Region. Land, 9(5):153.
  • National Geographic (2022) Urbanization. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/urbanization/. Access date: 11.12.2022.
  • OpenStreetMap (2023) Available online: https://www.openstreetmap.org/. Access date: 21.04.2023.
  • Oueslati W, Alvanides S, Garrod G (2015) Determinants of urban sprawl in European cities. Urban Studies, 52(9):1594-1614.
  • Öncel H, Meşhur MÇ (2021) Konya Kentsel alanının büyümesinde kentsel saçaklanma ve nedenleri. Planlama, 31(2):191-207.
  • Özmekik İM, Tonyaloğlu EE, Göktuğ TH (2022) Kent atlası verilerinden kentsel saçaklanmanın belirlenmesi: Samsun ili örneği. Türkiye Peyzaj Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(2):102-111.
  • Özşahin E, Eroğlu İ (2018) Land capability classification based on ecological properties of Tekirdag province. Journal of Human Sciences, 15(2):835-854.
  • Pașca A, Năsui D (2016) The use of CORINE Land Cover 2012 and Urban Atlas 2012 databases in agricultural spatial analysis. Case study: Cluj county, Romania. Res. J. Agric. Sci, 48: 314-322.
  • Pazúr R, Kopecká M, Feranec J (2015) Changes of artificial surfaces of Bratislava in 2006-2012 identified by the Urban Atlas data. Land Use/Cover Changes in Selected Regions in the World, 11:37-42.
  • Petrescu F (2019) Urban Sprawl from urban atlas data: Romanian Case Study. Management Research and Practice, 11(2):21-30.
  • Photis Y, Tsagkis P (2018) Using gama platform and urban atlas data to predict urban growth. the case of Athens. Urban Growth Sımulatıon Models, An Open-Source Software Perspectıve.
  • Prastacos P, Lagarias A, Chrysoulakis N (2017) Using the Urban atlas dataset for estimating spatial metrics. methodology and application in urban areas of Greece. Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography. Renata RC, Barbara C, Andrzej S (2021) Which polish cities sprawl the most. Land, 10(12):1291.
  • Sarı H, Özşahin E (2016) Analysis of LULC (Landuse/Landcover) Characteristics of Tekirdag Province based on the CORINE System. Alinteri Journal of Agriculture Science, 30(1):13-26.
  • Sezgin D, Varol Ç (2012) Ankara’daki kentsel büyüme ve saçaklanmanın verimli tarım topraklarının amaç dışı kullanımına etkisi. METU JFA 2012/1, 29 (1):273-288.
  • Sudhira HS, Ramachandra TV, Jagadish KS (2004) Urban sprawl: metrics, dynamics and modelling using GIS. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 5(1):29-39.
  • Süleymanpaşa Municipality (2015) Süleymanpaşa Belediyesi 2015-2019 Stratejik Plan (https://www.suleymanpasa.bel.tr/pdf.php?d=2015-2019StratejikPlan). Access date: 20.04.2023.
  • Süleymanpaşa Municipality (2023) Süleymanpaşa'nın Konumu (https://www.suleymanpasa.bel.tr/suleymanpasa-konumu). Access date: 20.04.2023.
  • Şenik B, Uzun O (2022) A process approach to the open green space system planning. Landscape and Ecological Engineering, 18(2):203-219. Terzi F, Bolen F (2009) Urban sprawl measurement of Istanbul. European Planning Studies, 17(10):1559-1570.
  • Terzi F, Tezer A, Turkay Z, Uzun O, Köylü P, Karacor E, Okay N, Kaya M (2020) An ecosystem services-based approach for decision-making in urban planning. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 63(3):433-452.
  • Tewolde MG, Cabral P (2011) Urban sprawl analysis and modeling in Asmara, Eritrea. Remote Sensing, 3(10):Article 10.
  • TUIK (Turkish Statistical Institute) (2023) İstatistik Göstergeler. İl Göstergeleri, Toplam Nüfus. 2022 yılı İl ve İlçe Nüfusları. https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/ilgosterge/?locale=tr. Access date: 25.04.2023.
  • UN DESA (2018) United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Dynamics. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision.
  • Wang X, Shi R, Zhou Y (2020) Dynamics of urban sprawl and sustainable development in China. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 70:100736.

Kentsel büyüme ve kentsel saçaklanmanın ölçülmesi ve değerlendirilmesi: Tekirdağ Örneği

Year 2023, Volume: 24 Issue: 2, 210 - 223, 15.10.2023
https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1367661

Abstract

Artan nüfusla birlikte günümüz kentleri hızlı bir değişim ve dönüşüm içerisindedir. Kentlerde artan insan faaliyetleri, biyolojik çeşitliliğin azalması, çevre kirliliğinin artması, ekosistem döngülerinin bozulması gibi pek çok olumsuz sonuç yaratmakta ve nihayetinde doğanın tahribatına neden olmaktadır. Bilhassa artan ihtiyaç ve taleplere yönelik olarak kentlerin kontrolsüz büyümesi ve genişlemesi, yanlış arazi kullanımları ile doğal kaynakların baskı altına girmesi ve kaybedilmeleri ile sonuçlanabilmektedir. Nitekim, özellikle hızlı nüfus artışına giren kentlerde bu durum daha fazla kendini göstermektedir. Bu konuda kentsel yayılımı işaret eden kentsel saçaklanma, doğru yönetilmediğinde pek çok olumsuz etkileri bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmada hızlı şekilde göç alarak nüfusu artan Tekirdağ ilinin nüfusun büyük bir oranını oluşturan üç ilçesi olan Süleymanpaşa, Çorlu ve Çerkezköy ilçelerindeki kentsel büyümenin değerlendirilmesi, kentsel saçaklanmanın tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu doğrultuda yüksek çözünürlüklü veri sunan Kent Atlası verilerinden yararlanarak 2012 ve 2018 yıllarına ilişkin arazi kullanım durumu ortaya koyulmuştur. Sonuçlar, tüm ilçeler için yapay alanların arttığını, tarım alanlarının azaldığını göstermiştir. Kentsel saçaklanmanın tespiti için Petrescu (2019) tarafından geliştirilen Normalleştirilmiş Kent Atlası Saçaklanma İndeksi (NUASI) kullanılmıştır. NUASI bulgularına göre ise Süleymanpaşa, Çorlu ve Çerkezköy ilçelerindeki kentsel saçaklanma trendi sırasıyla % -1.90, %0.70, %0.96 olarak belirlenmiştir. Bu sonuç en fazla saçaklanma gelişimine sahip ilçenin Çerkezköy olduğunu göstermiştir. Çalışma kapsamında mekânsal planlamaya yönelik öneriler sunulmuştur.

References

  • Aksoy ME, Sönmez Ö (2021) Sanayi Alanlarının kentsel forma ve saçaklanmaya etkisi:Arnavutköy Örneği. Journal of Technology and Applied Sciences, 3(2):151-166.
  • Aksoy T, Dabanli A, Cetin M, Senyel Kurkcuoglu MA, Cengiz AE, Cabuk SN, Agacsapan B, Cabuk A (2022) Evaluation of comparing urban area land use change with Urban Atlas and CORINE data. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(19):28995-29015.
  • Anonymous (2023a) Süleymanpaşa, (https://tr.db-city.com/T%C3%BCrkiye--Tekirda%C4%9F--S%C3%BCleymanpa%C5%9Fa) . Access date: 30.04.2023.
  • Anonymous (2023b) İlçemiz. Çorlu Belediyesi. http://www.corlu.bel.tr/idet/72/259/ilcemiz. Access date: 28.04.2023.
  • Anonymous (2023c) İl Olmaya Aday İlçeler Hangileri? https://www.nufusu.com/blog/il-olmaya-aday-ilceler-hangileri-114. Access date: 30.04.2023.
  • Arribas-Bel D, Nijkamp P, Scholten H (2011) Multidimensional urban sprawl in Europe: A self-organizing map approach. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 35(4):263-275.
  • Aydoğdu M, Bakırcı M (2021) Süleymanpaşa ilçesinde (Tekirdağ) nüfusun zamansal gelişimi ve mahallelere göre yoğunluk analizi. Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi, 26(46):273-294.
  • Bhatta B, Saraswati S, Bandyopadhyay D (2010) Urban sprawl measurement from remote sensing data. Applied Geography, 30(4):731-740.
  • CLMS (Copernicus Land Monitoring Service) (2022) Urban Atlas. https://land.copernicus.eu/local/urban-atlas. Access date: 15.04.2023.
  • Çavuş CZ, Başaran Uysal A (2018) Interaction with the urban development, sprawl and the rural areas in Canakkale. Planlama Dergisi, 28(Supp:1):105-117.
  • Çerkezköy Chamber of Commerce and Industry (2023) Çerkezköy. https://www.cerkezkoytso.org.tr/uploads/docs/cerkezkoy(1).pdf. Access date: 17.04.2023.
  • Çorlu Chamber of Commerce and Industry (2023) Coğrafi konum (https://www.corlutso.org.tr/content-222-cografi_konum.html#:~:text=%C3%87orlu%2C%20T%C3%BCrkiye'nin%20kuzeybat%C4%B1%20(,00%20saniye%20kuzey%20enlemi%20aras%C4%B1ndad%C4%B1r. Access date: 17.04.2023.
  • Çorlu Municipality (2020) Çorlu Tanıtım ve Turizm Rehberi. Çorlu Belediyesi Yayınları. https://www.corlu.bel.tr/upload/tr/dosya/yayinlar/turkce_18112020145132.pdf. Access date: 17.04.2023.
  • Dobesova Z (2020) Experiment in finding look-alike european cities using urban atlas data. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 9(6): Article 6.
  • Duru MA, Hoş F, Ersoy Tonyaloğlu E (2022) Kent peyzajının yeşil altyapı yaklaşımı ile değerlendirilmesi: Çankaya / Ankara örneği. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 23(1):135-143.
  • Fang S, Gertner GZ, Sun Z, Anderson AA (2005) The impact of interactions in spatial simulation of the dynamics of urban sprawl. Landscape and Urban Planning, 73(4):294-306.
  • Gülhan G (2017) Nazım İmar Planı Geri besleme süreçlerinde erişilebilirlik ölçütlerinin kullanılması: Tekirdağ/Süleymanpaşa Örneği. Artium, 5(1):42-60.
  • Hamidi S, Ewing R (2014) A longitudinal study of changes in urban sprawl between 2000 and 2010 in the United States. Landscape and Urban Planning, 128:72-82.
  • Hasse JE, Lathrop RG (2003) Land resource impact indicators of urban sprawl. Applied Geography, 23(2):159-175.
  • Hennig EI, Schwick C, Soukup T, Orlitová E, Kienast F, Jaeger JAG (2015) Multi-scale analysis of urban sprawl in Europe: Towards a European de-sprawling strategy. Land Use Policy, 49:483-498.
  • Jaeger JAG, Bertiller R, Schwick C, Kienast F (2010a) Suitability criteria for measures of urban sprawl. Ecological Indicators, 10(2):397-406.
  • Jaeger JAG, Bertiller R, Schwick C, Cavens D, Kienast F (2010b) Urban permeation of landscapes and sprawl per capita: New measures of urban sprawl. Ecological Indicators, 10(2):427-441.
  • Jaeger JAG, Schwick C (2014) Improving the measurement of urban sprawl: Weighted Urban Proliferation (WUP) and its application to Switzerland. Ecological Indicators, 38:294-308.
  • Jat MK, Garg PK, Khare D (2008) Monitoring and modelling of urban sprawl using remote sensing and GIS techniques. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 10(1):26-43.
  • Kanbak A (2013) İstanbul ve Kentsel Saçaklanma. MSGSÜ Sosyal Bilimler, 8: 11-30.
  • Lata KM, Rao CS, Prasad VK, Badarianth KVS, Rahgavasamy V (2001) Measuring urban sprawl: A case study of Hyderabad. GIS development, 5(12):26-29.
  • Micek O, Feranec J, Stych P (2020) Land use/land cover data of the urban atlas and the cadastre of real estate: an evaluation study in the Prague Metropolitan Region. Land, 9(5):153.
  • National Geographic (2022) Urbanization. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/urbanization/. Access date: 11.12.2022.
  • OpenStreetMap (2023) Available online: https://www.openstreetmap.org/. Access date: 21.04.2023.
  • Oueslati W, Alvanides S, Garrod G (2015) Determinants of urban sprawl in European cities. Urban Studies, 52(9):1594-1614.
  • Öncel H, Meşhur MÇ (2021) Konya Kentsel alanının büyümesinde kentsel saçaklanma ve nedenleri. Planlama, 31(2):191-207.
  • Özmekik İM, Tonyaloğlu EE, Göktuğ TH (2022) Kent atlası verilerinden kentsel saçaklanmanın belirlenmesi: Samsun ili örneği. Türkiye Peyzaj Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(2):102-111.
  • Özşahin E, Eroğlu İ (2018) Land capability classification based on ecological properties of Tekirdag province. Journal of Human Sciences, 15(2):835-854.
  • Pașca A, Năsui D (2016) The use of CORINE Land Cover 2012 and Urban Atlas 2012 databases in agricultural spatial analysis. Case study: Cluj county, Romania. Res. J. Agric. Sci, 48: 314-322.
  • Pazúr R, Kopecká M, Feranec J (2015) Changes of artificial surfaces of Bratislava in 2006-2012 identified by the Urban Atlas data. Land Use/Cover Changes in Selected Regions in the World, 11:37-42.
  • Petrescu F (2019) Urban Sprawl from urban atlas data: Romanian Case Study. Management Research and Practice, 11(2):21-30.
  • Photis Y, Tsagkis P (2018) Using gama platform and urban atlas data to predict urban growth. the case of Athens. Urban Growth Sımulatıon Models, An Open-Source Software Perspectıve.
  • Prastacos P, Lagarias A, Chrysoulakis N (2017) Using the Urban atlas dataset for estimating spatial metrics. methodology and application in urban areas of Greece. Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography. Renata RC, Barbara C, Andrzej S (2021) Which polish cities sprawl the most. Land, 10(12):1291.
  • Sarı H, Özşahin E (2016) Analysis of LULC (Landuse/Landcover) Characteristics of Tekirdag Province based on the CORINE System. Alinteri Journal of Agriculture Science, 30(1):13-26.
  • Sezgin D, Varol Ç (2012) Ankara’daki kentsel büyüme ve saçaklanmanın verimli tarım topraklarının amaç dışı kullanımına etkisi. METU JFA 2012/1, 29 (1):273-288.
  • Sudhira HS, Ramachandra TV, Jagadish KS (2004) Urban sprawl: metrics, dynamics and modelling using GIS. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 5(1):29-39.
  • Süleymanpaşa Municipality (2015) Süleymanpaşa Belediyesi 2015-2019 Stratejik Plan (https://www.suleymanpasa.bel.tr/pdf.php?d=2015-2019StratejikPlan). Access date: 20.04.2023.
  • Süleymanpaşa Municipality (2023) Süleymanpaşa'nın Konumu (https://www.suleymanpasa.bel.tr/suleymanpasa-konumu). Access date: 20.04.2023.
  • Şenik B, Uzun O (2022) A process approach to the open green space system planning. Landscape and Ecological Engineering, 18(2):203-219. Terzi F, Bolen F (2009) Urban sprawl measurement of Istanbul. European Planning Studies, 17(10):1559-1570.
  • Terzi F, Tezer A, Turkay Z, Uzun O, Köylü P, Karacor E, Okay N, Kaya M (2020) An ecosystem services-based approach for decision-making in urban planning. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 63(3):433-452.
  • Tewolde MG, Cabral P (2011) Urban sprawl analysis and modeling in Asmara, Eritrea. Remote Sensing, 3(10):Article 10.
  • TUIK (Turkish Statistical Institute) (2023) İstatistik Göstergeler. İl Göstergeleri, Toplam Nüfus. 2022 yılı İl ve İlçe Nüfusları. https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/ilgosterge/?locale=tr. Access date: 25.04.2023.
  • UN DESA (2018) United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Dynamics. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision.
  • Wang X, Shi R, Zhou Y (2020) Dynamics of urban sprawl and sustainable development in China. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 70:100736.
There are 49 citations in total.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Computer Technology in Landscape Architecture , Landscape Planning
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Tuğba Üstün Topal 0000-0002-9687-927X

Publication Date October 15, 2023
Acceptance Date October 4, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 24 Issue: 2

Cite

APA Üstün Topal, T. (2023). Measurement and evaluation of urban growth and urban sprawl: Tekirdağ Example. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 24(2), 210-223. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1367661
AMA Üstün Topal T. Measurement and evaluation of urban growth and urban sprawl: Tekirdağ Example. ACUJFF. October 2023;24(2):210-223. doi:10.17474/artvinofd.1367661
Chicago Üstün Topal, Tuğba. “Measurement and Evaluation of Urban Growth and Urban Sprawl: Tekirdağ Example”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24, no. 2 (October 2023): 210-23. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1367661.
EndNote Üstün Topal T (October 1, 2023) Measurement and evaluation of urban growth and urban sprawl: Tekirdağ Example. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24 2 210–223.
IEEE T. Üstün Topal, “Measurement and evaluation of urban growth and urban sprawl: Tekirdağ Example”, ACUJFF, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 210–223, 2023, doi: 10.17474/artvinofd.1367661.
ISNAD Üstün Topal, Tuğba. “Measurement and Evaluation of Urban Growth and Urban Sprawl: Tekirdağ Example”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24/2 (October 2023), 210-223. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1367661.
JAMA Üstün Topal T. Measurement and evaluation of urban growth and urban sprawl: Tekirdağ Example. ACUJFF. 2023;24:210–223.
MLA Üstün Topal, Tuğba. “Measurement and Evaluation of Urban Growth and Urban Sprawl: Tekirdağ Example”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 24, no. 2, 2023, pp. 210-23, doi:10.17474/artvinofd.1367661.
Vancouver Üstün Topal T. Measurement and evaluation of urban growth and urban sprawl: Tekirdağ Example. ACUJFF. 2023;24(2):210-23.
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