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Evaluation of urea formaldehyde (UF) as a surface coating material: Black pine wood and oriented strand board (OSB) coating by enhanced UF

Year 2023, Volume: 24 Issue: 2, 117 - 128, 15.10.2023
https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1292968

Abstract

In this study, the applicability of a urea formaldehyde (UF) resin as a wood surface coater was investigated. Organic fillers were used in the resin solution to prevent crack formation on the surface covered with UF resin. Oriented strand board (OSB) and Black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.) massive wood were used to prepare the samples. To prepare the control group, 4 g of ammonium sulfate (AS) was added to 100 g of UF and blended at 1000 rpm for 5 min. The first group was prepared using 5 g of wheat flour (WF) in 100 g UF as an organic filler. The second group was prepared by adding 5 g of cellulose fiber (CF) to a 100 g of glue solution, and the results were compared with those of the control group. The mechanical characterization of the samples (abrasion and scratch analysis) and staining analyses of the samples were determined according to the relevant standards. In addition, the samples were subjected to accelerated weathering by manually applying periodic moisturizing and drying. According to the results, the abrasion and scratch resistances of the black pine samples were higher than those of the OSB samples. Although the addition of WF reduced the abrasion and scratch resistance of the surfaces, it also eliminated the crack formation on the surface before weathering. The abrasion and scratch analysis results of boards coated with UF were much higher than those of the particleboards and fiberboards covered with decorative paper. The weathering process increased stain visibility in all samples, especially in the WF-added sample. After weathering, an approximately 30-40% decrease in scratch and wear resistance was observed in all the samples. As a result, it was concluded that UF can be used to coat the surfaces of wooden boards together with organic fillers in semi-outdoor environments.

References

  • Adamopoulos FG, Vouvoudi EC, Achilias DS, and Karapanagiotis I (2021). Fluorosilane water-repellent coating for the protection of marble, wood and other materials. Heritage, 4(4): 2668–2675.
  • Barnes HM (2001). Wood: Preservative Treated. In Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology (pp. 9683–9688).
  • Caldeira F (2010). Boron in wood preservation. A review in its physico-chemical aspects. Silva Lusit, 18(2): 179–196.
  • Derbyshire H, Miller ER (1981). The photodegradation of wood during solar irradiation. Holz Als Roh-Und Werkstoff, 39(8):341–350.
  • Dhyani S, Tripathi S (2006). Protection of hard and softwood through neem leaves extracts and oil: a direction towards development of eco-friendly wood preservatives. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Document No. IRG/WP06, 20394: 18-22.
  • DIN 53799 (1986). Decorative laminated sheets on basis of aminoplastic resins; test method. European Standard, 83.140.20, 1 January 1986.
  • DIN EN 13329 (2021). Laminate floor coverings-elements with a surface layer based on aminoplastic thermosetting resins-specifications, requirements and test methods.
  • Dunky M (1998). Urea–formaldehyde (UF) adhesive resins for wood. Int J Adhes Adhes, 18(2): 95–107.
  • Dvorchak MJ (1997). Using “high performance two-component waterborne polyurethane” wood coatings. Journal of Coatings Technology, 69(3): 47–52.
  • EN 204 (2016). Classification of thermoplastic wood adhesives for non-structural applications European Standard. ICS 83.180, August.
  • EN 300 (2006). Oriented strand boards (OSB)-definitions, classification and specifications. European Standard, ICS 79.060.20, July.
  • EN 314 (1993). Plywood-bonding quality. Part 2: Requirements, European Standard, UDC 674.03-419.3:621.792:620.176, February.
  • EN 622 (2003). Fibreboards-specifications. Part 1: General Requirements, European Standard, ICS 79.060.20, April.
  • Esteves B (2009). Wood modification by heat treatment: A review. BioResources, 4 (1): 370-404.
  • Freeman MH, McIntyre CR (2008). Copper-based wood preservatives. For Prod J, 58(11): 6–27.
  • Goodell B, Winandy JE, Morrell JJ (2020). Fungal degradation of wood: emerging data, new ınsights and changing perceptions. Coatings, 10(12): 1210.
  • Jakes JE, Zelinka SL, Hunt CG, Ciesielski P, Frihart CR, Yelle D, Passarini L, Gleber S-C, Vine D, Vogt S (2020). Measurement of moisture-dependent ion diffusion constants in wood cell wall layers using time-lapse micro X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Sci Rep, 10(1): 9919.
  • Kelleci O, Koksal SE, Aydemir D, Sancar S (2022). Eco-friendly particleboards with low formaldehyde emission and enhanced mechanical properties produced with foamed urea-formaldehyde resins. J Clean Prod, 134785.
  • Landry V, Blanchet P (2012). Surface preparation of wood for application of waterborne coatings. For Prod J, 62(1): 39–45.
  • Li X, Wang D, Zhao L, Hou X, Liu L, Feng B, Li M, Zheng P, Zhao X, Wei S (2021). UV LED curable epoxy soybean-oil-based waterborne PUA resin for wood coatings. Prog Org Coat, 151: 105942.
  • Ma X, Jiang M, Wu Y, Wang P (2013). Effect of wood surface treatment on fungal decay and termite resistance. Bioresources, 8(2): 2366–2375.
  • Mantanis GI, Papadopoulos AN (2010). The sorption of water vapour of wood treated with a nanotechnology compound. Wood Sci Technol, 44(3): 515–522.
  • Militz H (2002). Thermal treatment of wood. European processes and their background, IRG/WP.
  • Nagamadhu M, Ravi Kumar S, Suraj R, Manjunath Iyer KB, Mohan Kumar GC (2020). Influence of extender on thermo-mechanical properties of melamine-urea-formaldehyde [MUF] for wood adhesive applications. Mater Today Proc, 24: 2274–2282.
  • Nikolic M, Lawther JM, Sanadi AR (2015). Use of nanofillers in wood coatings: a scientific review. J Coat Technol Res, 12(3): 445–461. Oliveira GL, de Oliveira FL, Brazolin S (2018). Wood preservation for preventing biodeterioration of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) panels assembled in tropical locations. Procedia Structural Integrity, 11: 242–249.
  • Paiva NT, Ferra JM, Pereira J, Martins J, Carvalho L, Magalhães FD (2016). Production of water tolerant melamine–urea–formaldehyde resin by incorporation of sodium metabisulphite. Int J Adhes Adhes, 70: 160–166.
  • Rosu L, Varganici C, Mustata F, Rosu D, Rosca I, Rusu T (2020). Epoxy coatings based on modified vegetable oils for wood surface protection against fungal degradation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 12(12): 14443–14458.
  • Sandberg D (2016). Additives in wood products-today and future development. Environmental Impacts of Traditional and Innovative Forest-bBsed Bioproducts, 105-172.
  • Schmalzl KJ, Evans PD (2003). Wood surface protection with some titanium, zirconium and manganese compounds. Polym Degrad Stab, 82(3): 409–419.
  • Song F, Liu T, Fan Q, Li D, Ou R, Liu Z, Wang Q (2022). Sustainable, high-performance, flame-retardant waterborne wood coatings via phytic acid based green curing agent for melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin. Prog Org Coat, 162: 106597.
  • TABER A (1994). Operating ınstructions 352/d-TABER abraser-model 5131 & 5151 (translation-extract from the original operating instructions). In Results in Materials, (18).
  • TS EN 312 (2005). Particleboards-Specification. Türk Standartları Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • TS EN 13329 (2021). Laminate floor coverings-elements with a surface layer based on aminoplastic thermosetting resins. Specifications, Requirements and Test Methods.
  • TS EN 15186 (2012). Furniture-assessment of the surface resistance to scratching. Türk Standartları Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Van den Bulcke J, Rijckaert V, Van Acker J, Stevens M (2003). Quantitative measurement of the penetration of water-borne coatings in wood with confocal lasermicroscopy and image analysis. Holz Als Roh- Und Werkstoff, 61(4): 304–310.
  • Yamaguchi H, Sakata IJ, Higuchi M (1980). Hydrolytic dissolution behavior of a hardened urea-formardehyde resin. Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society, 26(199).
  • Yan-jun X, Yi-xing L, Yao-xing S (2002). Heat-treated wood and its development in Europe. J For Res (Harbin), 13(3): 224–230.
  • Zahora A (1993). A water repellent additive’s influence on field performance of southern yellow pine lumber. 88th Annual Meeting of the American Wood-Preservers’ Association, 148–159.

Üre formaldehitin (UF) ahşap yüzey kaplama malzemesi olarak değerlendirilmesi: Karaçam ve yönlendirilmiş yonga levhaların (OSB) kaplanması

Year 2023, Volume: 24 Issue: 2, 117 - 128, 15.10.2023
https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1292968

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, üre formaldehit (UF) reçinesinin ahşap yüzey kaplayıcısı olarak kullanım olanakları araştırılmıştır. UF reçinesi ile kaplanan yüzeylerde çatlak oluşumunu önlemek için reçine çözeltisine organik dolgu maddeleri eklenmiştir. Ahşap malzeme olarak yönlendirilmiş yonga levha (OSB) ve Karaçam (Pinus nigra Arnold.) odunu kullanılmıştır. Kontrol grubu 100 gr UF' ye 4 gr amonyum sülfat (AS) ilâve edilip 1000 rpm'de 5 dakika karıştırılarak elde edilmiştir. Birinci grupta organik dolgu maddesi olarak buğday unu (WF-100 gr UF içine 5 gr WF), ikinci grupta ise selüloz lifi (CF-100 gr UF içine 5 gr CF) kullanılmıştır. Numunelerin üst yüzey mekanik özellikleri (aşınma ve çizilme analizleri) ile leke tutma analizleri ilgili standartlara göre belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca örneklere periyodik olarak nemlendirme ve kurutma işlemi yapılarak hızlı yaşlandırma uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen verilere göre karaçam örneklerinin aşınma ve çizilme direncinin OSB örneklerine göre daha yüksek olduğu bulunmuştur. WF ilâvesi yüzeylerin aşınma ve çizilme direncini düşürmesine rağmen yaşlandırma öncesi yüzeydeki çatlak oluşumlarını engellemiştir. UF kaplı levhaların aşınma ve çizilme analiz sonuçlarının, dekoratif kâğıt kaplı yonga levha ve lif levhalara kıyasla çok daha yüksek olduğu belirlenmiştir. Yaşlandırma işlemi tüm örneklerde, özellikle WF ekli örneklerde leke görünürlük oranını artırmıştır. Yaşlandırma sonrasında, tüm örneklerin çizilme aşınma dirençlerinin %30-40 azaldığı tespit edilmiştir. Yapılan çalışmayla UF'nin organik dolgularla birlikte yarı kapalı ortamlarda ahşap levha yüzeylerinin kaplanmasında kullanılabileceği sonucuna varılmıştır.

References

  • Adamopoulos FG, Vouvoudi EC, Achilias DS, and Karapanagiotis I (2021). Fluorosilane water-repellent coating for the protection of marble, wood and other materials. Heritage, 4(4): 2668–2675.
  • Barnes HM (2001). Wood: Preservative Treated. In Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology (pp. 9683–9688).
  • Caldeira F (2010). Boron in wood preservation. A review in its physico-chemical aspects. Silva Lusit, 18(2): 179–196.
  • Derbyshire H, Miller ER (1981). The photodegradation of wood during solar irradiation. Holz Als Roh-Und Werkstoff, 39(8):341–350.
  • Dhyani S, Tripathi S (2006). Protection of hard and softwood through neem leaves extracts and oil: a direction towards development of eco-friendly wood preservatives. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Document No. IRG/WP06, 20394: 18-22.
  • DIN 53799 (1986). Decorative laminated sheets on basis of aminoplastic resins; test method. European Standard, 83.140.20, 1 January 1986.
  • DIN EN 13329 (2021). Laminate floor coverings-elements with a surface layer based on aminoplastic thermosetting resins-specifications, requirements and test methods.
  • Dunky M (1998). Urea–formaldehyde (UF) adhesive resins for wood. Int J Adhes Adhes, 18(2): 95–107.
  • Dvorchak MJ (1997). Using “high performance two-component waterborne polyurethane” wood coatings. Journal of Coatings Technology, 69(3): 47–52.
  • EN 204 (2016). Classification of thermoplastic wood adhesives for non-structural applications European Standard. ICS 83.180, August.
  • EN 300 (2006). Oriented strand boards (OSB)-definitions, classification and specifications. European Standard, ICS 79.060.20, July.
  • EN 314 (1993). Plywood-bonding quality. Part 2: Requirements, European Standard, UDC 674.03-419.3:621.792:620.176, February.
  • EN 622 (2003). Fibreboards-specifications. Part 1: General Requirements, European Standard, ICS 79.060.20, April.
  • Esteves B (2009). Wood modification by heat treatment: A review. BioResources, 4 (1): 370-404.
  • Freeman MH, McIntyre CR (2008). Copper-based wood preservatives. For Prod J, 58(11): 6–27.
  • Goodell B, Winandy JE, Morrell JJ (2020). Fungal degradation of wood: emerging data, new ınsights and changing perceptions. Coatings, 10(12): 1210.
  • Jakes JE, Zelinka SL, Hunt CG, Ciesielski P, Frihart CR, Yelle D, Passarini L, Gleber S-C, Vine D, Vogt S (2020). Measurement of moisture-dependent ion diffusion constants in wood cell wall layers using time-lapse micro X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Sci Rep, 10(1): 9919.
  • Kelleci O, Koksal SE, Aydemir D, Sancar S (2022). Eco-friendly particleboards with low formaldehyde emission and enhanced mechanical properties produced with foamed urea-formaldehyde resins. J Clean Prod, 134785.
  • Landry V, Blanchet P (2012). Surface preparation of wood for application of waterborne coatings. For Prod J, 62(1): 39–45.
  • Li X, Wang D, Zhao L, Hou X, Liu L, Feng B, Li M, Zheng P, Zhao X, Wei S (2021). UV LED curable epoxy soybean-oil-based waterborne PUA resin for wood coatings. Prog Org Coat, 151: 105942.
  • Ma X, Jiang M, Wu Y, Wang P (2013). Effect of wood surface treatment on fungal decay and termite resistance. Bioresources, 8(2): 2366–2375.
  • Mantanis GI, Papadopoulos AN (2010). The sorption of water vapour of wood treated with a nanotechnology compound. Wood Sci Technol, 44(3): 515–522.
  • Militz H (2002). Thermal treatment of wood. European processes and their background, IRG/WP.
  • Nagamadhu M, Ravi Kumar S, Suraj R, Manjunath Iyer KB, Mohan Kumar GC (2020). Influence of extender on thermo-mechanical properties of melamine-urea-formaldehyde [MUF] for wood adhesive applications. Mater Today Proc, 24: 2274–2282.
  • Nikolic M, Lawther JM, Sanadi AR (2015). Use of nanofillers in wood coatings: a scientific review. J Coat Technol Res, 12(3): 445–461. Oliveira GL, de Oliveira FL, Brazolin S (2018). Wood preservation for preventing biodeterioration of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) panels assembled in tropical locations. Procedia Structural Integrity, 11: 242–249.
  • Paiva NT, Ferra JM, Pereira J, Martins J, Carvalho L, Magalhães FD (2016). Production of water tolerant melamine–urea–formaldehyde resin by incorporation of sodium metabisulphite. Int J Adhes Adhes, 70: 160–166.
  • Rosu L, Varganici C, Mustata F, Rosu D, Rosca I, Rusu T (2020). Epoxy coatings based on modified vegetable oils for wood surface protection against fungal degradation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 12(12): 14443–14458.
  • Sandberg D (2016). Additives in wood products-today and future development. Environmental Impacts of Traditional and Innovative Forest-bBsed Bioproducts, 105-172.
  • Schmalzl KJ, Evans PD (2003). Wood surface protection with some titanium, zirconium and manganese compounds. Polym Degrad Stab, 82(3): 409–419.
  • Song F, Liu T, Fan Q, Li D, Ou R, Liu Z, Wang Q (2022). Sustainable, high-performance, flame-retardant waterborne wood coatings via phytic acid based green curing agent for melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin. Prog Org Coat, 162: 106597.
  • TABER A (1994). Operating ınstructions 352/d-TABER abraser-model 5131 & 5151 (translation-extract from the original operating instructions). In Results in Materials, (18).
  • TS EN 312 (2005). Particleboards-Specification. Türk Standartları Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • TS EN 13329 (2021). Laminate floor coverings-elements with a surface layer based on aminoplastic thermosetting resins. Specifications, Requirements and Test Methods.
  • TS EN 15186 (2012). Furniture-assessment of the surface resistance to scratching. Türk Standartları Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Van den Bulcke J, Rijckaert V, Van Acker J, Stevens M (2003). Quantitative measurement of the penetration of water-borne coatings in wood with confocal lasermicroscopy and image analysis. Holz Als Roh- Und Werkstoff, 61(4): 304–310.
  • Yamaguchi H, Sakata IJ, Higuchi M (1980). Hydrolytic dissolution behavior of a hardened urea-formardehyde resin. Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society, 26(199).
  • Yan-jun X, Yi-xing L, Yao-xing S (2002). Heat-treated wood and its development in Europe. J For Res (Harbin), 13(3): 224–230.
  • Zahora A (1993). A water repellent additive’s influence on field performance of southern yellow pine lumber. 88th Annual Meeting of the American Wood-Preservers’ Association, 148–159.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Forest Industry Engineering
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Orhan KELLECİ 0000-0003-4501-0854

Süheyla Esin KÖKSAL 0000-0001-7970-8412

Publication Date October 15, 2023
Acceptance Date August 25, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 24 Issue: 2

Cite

APA KELLECİ, O., & KÖKSAL, S. E. (2023). Evaluation of urea formaldehyde (UF) as a surface coating material: Black pine wood and oriented strand board (OSB) coating by enhanced UF. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 24(2), 117-128. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1292968
AMA KELLECİ O, KÖKSAL SE. Evaluation of urea formaldehyde (UF) as a surface coating material: Black pine wood and oriented strand board (OSB) coating by enhanced UF. ACUJFF. October 2023;24(2):117-128. doi:10.17474/artvinofd.1292968
Chicago KELLECİ, Orhan, and Süheyla Esin KÖKSAL. “Evaluation of Urea Formaldehyde (UF) As a Surface Coating Material: Black Pine Wood and Oriented Strand Board (OSB) Coating by Enhanced UF”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24, no. 2 (October 2023): 117-28. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1292968.
EndNote KELLECİ O, KÖKSAL SE (October 1, 2023) Evaluation of urea formaldehyde (UF) as a surface coating material: Black pine wood and oriented strand board (OSB) coating by enhanced UF. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24 2 117–128.
IEEE O. KELLECİ and S. E. KÖKSAL, “Evaluation of urea formaldehyde (UF) as a surface coating material: Black pine wood and oriented strand board (OSB) coating by enhanced UF”, ACUJFF, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 117–128, 2023, doi: 10.17474/artvinofd.1292968.
ISNAD KELLECİ, Orhan - KÖKSAL, Süheyla Esin. “Evaluation of Urea Formaldehyde (UF) As a Surface Coating Material: Black Pine Wood and Oriented Strand Board (OSB) Coating by Enhanced UF”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 24/2 (October 2023), 117-128. https://doi.org/10.17474/artvinofd.1292968.
JAMA KELLECİ O, KÖKSAL SE. Evaluation of urea formaldehyde (UF) as a surface coating material: Black pine wood and oriented strand board (OSB) coating by enhanced UF. ACUJFF. 2023;24:117–128.
MLA KELLECİ, Orhan and Süheyla Esin KÖKSAL. “Evaluation of Urea Formaldehyde (UF) As a Surface Coating Material: Black Pine Wood and Oriented Strand Board (OSB) Coating by Enhanced UF”. Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 24, no. 2, 2023, pp. 117-28, doi:10.17474/artvinofd.1292968.
Vancouver KELLECİ O, KÖKSAL SE. Evaluation of urea formaldehyde (UF) as a surface coating material: Black pine wood and oriented strand board (OSB) coating by enhanced UF. ACUJFF. 2023;24(2):117-28.
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